Results for: "strip"

Returns a copy of the receiver with leading and trailing whitespace removed; see Whitespace in Strings:

whitespace = "\x00\t\n\v\f\r "
s = whitespace + 'abc' + whitespace
s       # => "\u0000\t\n\v\f\r abc\u0000\t\n\v\f\r "
s.strip # => "abc"

Related: String#lstrip, String#rstrip.

No documentation available
No documentation available

This method verifies that there are no (obvious) ambiguities with the provided col_sep and strip parsing options. For example, if col_sep and strip were both equal to \t, then there would be no clear way to parse the input.

A String object has an arbitrary sequence of bytes, typically representing text or binary data. A String object may be created using String::new or as literals.

String objects differ from Symbol objects in that Symbol objects are designed to be used as identifiers, instead of text or data.

You can create a String object explicitly with:

You can convert certain objects to Strings with:

Some String methods modify self. Typically, a method whose name ends with ! modifies self and returns self; often a similarly named method (without the !) returns a new string.

In general, if there exist both bang and non-bang version of method, the bang! mutates and the non-bang! does not. However, a method without a bang can also mutate, such as String#replace.

Substitution Methods

These methods perform substitutions:

Each of these methods takes:

The examples in this section mostly use methods String#sub and String#gsub; the principles illustrated apply to all four substitution methods.

Argument pattern

Argument pattern is commonly a regular expression:

s = 'hello'
s.sub(/[aeiou]/, '*')# => "h*llo"
s.gsub(/[aeiou]/, '*') # => "h*ll*"
s.gsub(/[aeiou]/, '')# => "hll"
s.sub(/ell/, 'al')   # => "halo"
s.gsub(/xyzzy/, '*') # => "hello"
'THX1138'.gsub(/\d+/, '00') # => "THX00"

When pattern is a string, all its characters are treated as ordinary characters (not as regexp special characters):

'THX1138'.gsub('\d+', '00') # => "THX1138"

String replacement

If replacement is a string, that string will determine the replacing string that is to be substituted for the matched text.

Each of the examples above uses a simple string as the replacing string.

String replacement may contain back-references to the pattern’s captures:

See Regexp for details.

Note that within the string replacement, a character combination such as $& is treated as ordinary text, and not as a special match variable. However, you may refer to some special match variables using these combinations:

See Regexp for details.

Note that \\ is interpreted as an escape, i.e., a single backslash.

Note also that a string literal consumes backslashes. See string literal for details about string literals.

A back-reference is typically preceded by an additional backslash. For example, if you want to write a back-reference \& in replacement with a double-quoted string literal, you need to write "..\\&..".

If you want to write a non-back-reference string \& in replacement, you need first to escape the backslash to prevent this method from interpreting it as a back-reference, and then you need to escape the backslashes again to prevent a string literal from consuming them: "..\\\\&..".

You may want to use the block form to avoid a lot of backslashes.

Hash replacement

If argument replacement is a hash, and pattern matches one of its keys, the replacing string is the value for that key:

h = {'foo' => 'bar', 'baz' => 'bat'}
'food'.sub('foo', h) # => "bard"

Note that a symbol key does not match:

h = {foo: 'bar', baz: 'bat'}
'food'.sub('foo', h) # => "d"


In the block form, the current match string is passed to the block; the block’s return value becomes the replacing string:

 s = '@'
'1234'.gsub(/\d/) {|match| s.succ! } # => "ABCD"

Special match variables such as $1, $2, $`, $&, and $' are set appropriately.

Whitespace in Strings

In class String, whitespace is defined as a contiguous sequence of characters consisting of any mixture of the following:

Whitespace is relevant for these methods:

String Slices

A slice of a string is a substring that is selected by certain criteria.

These instance methods make use of slicing:

Each of the above methods takes arguments that determine the slice to be copied or replaced.

The arguments have several forms. For string string, the forms are:


When non-negative integer argument index is given, the slice is the 1-character substring found in self at character offset index:

'bar'[0]       # => "b"
'bar'[2]       # => "r"
'bar'[20]      # => nil
'тест'[2]      # => "с"
'こんにちは'[4]  # => "は"

When negative integer index is given, the slice begins at the offset given by counting backward from the end of self:

'bar'[-3]         # => "b"
'bar'[-1]         # => "r"
'bar'[-20]        # => nil

string[start, length]

When non-negative integer arguments start and length are given, the slice begins at character offset start, if it exists, and continues for length characters, if available:

'foo'[0, 2]       # => "fo"
'тест'[1, 2]      # => "ес"
'こんにちは'[2, 2]  # => "にち"
# Zero length.
'foo'[2, 0]       # => ""
# Length not entirely available.
'foo'[1, 200]     # => "oo"
# Start out of range.
'foo'[4, 2]      # => nil

Special case: if start is equal to the length of self, the slice is a new empty string:

'foo'[3, 2]   # => ""
'foo'[3, 200] # => ""

When negative start and non-negative length are given, the slice beginning is determined by counting backward from the end of self, and the slice continues for length characters, if available:

'foo'[-2, 2]    # => "oo"
'foo'[-2, 200]  # => "oo"
# Start out of range.
'foo'[-4, 2]     # => nil

When negative length is given, there is no slice:

'foo'[1, -1]  # => nil
'foo'[-2, -1] # => nil


When Range argument range is given, creates a substring of string using the indices in range. The slice is then determined as above:

'foo'[0..1]    # => "fo"
'foo'[0, 2]    # => "fo"

'foo'[2...2]   # => ""
'foo'[2, 0]    # => ""

'foo'[1..200]  # => "oo"
'foo'[1, 200]  # => "oo"

'foo'[4..5]    # => nil
'foo'[4, 2]    # => nil

'foo'[-4..-3]  # => nil
'foo'[-4, 2]   # => nil

'foo'[3..4]    # => ""
'foo'[3, 2]    # => ""

'foo'[-2..-1]  # => "oo"
'foo'[-2, 2]   # => "oo"

'foo'[-2..197] # => "oo"
'foo'[-2, 200] # => "oo"

string[regexp, capture = 0]

When the Regexp argument regexp is given, and the capture argument is 0, the slice is the first matching substring found in self:

'foo'[/o/] # => "o"
'foo'[/x/] # => nil
s = 'hello there'
s[/[aeiou](.)\1/] # => "ell"
s[/[aeiou](.)\1/, 0] # => "ell"

If argument capture is given and not 0, it should be either an capture group index (integer) or a capture group name (string or symbol); the slice is the specified capture (see Groups and Captures at Regexp):

s = 'hello there'
s[/[aeiou](.)\1/, 1] # => "l"
s[/(?<vowel>[aeiou])(?<non_vowel>[^aeiou])/, "non_vowel"] # => "l"
s[/(?<vowel>[aeiou])(?<non_vowel>[^aeiou])/, :vowel] # => "e"

If an invalid capture group index is given, there is no slice. If an invalid capture group name is given, IndexError is raised.


When the single String argument substring is given, returns the substring from self if found, otherwise nil:

'foo'['oo'] # => "oo"
'foo'['xx'] # => nil

What’s Here

First, what’s elsewhere. Class String:

Here, class String provides methods that are useful for:

Methods for Creating a String

Methods for a Frozen/Unfrozen String

Methods for Querying





Methods for Comparing

Methods for Modifying a String

Each of these methods modifies self.






Methods for Converting to New String

Each of these methods returns a new String based on self, often just a modified copy of self.







Methods for Converting to Non-String

Each of these methods converts the contents of self to a non-String.

Characters, Bytes, and Clusters




Strings and Symbols

Methods for Iterating

IO streams for strings, with access similar to IO; see IO.

About the Examples

Examples on this page assume that StringIO has been required:

require 'stringio'

StringScanner provides for lexical scanning operations on a String. Here is an example of its usage:

require 'strscan'

s ='This is an example string')
s.eos?               # -> false

p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> "This"
p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> nil
p s.scan(/\s+/)      # -> " "
p s.scan(/\s+/)      # -> nil
p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> "is"
s.eos?               # -> false

p s.scan(/\s+/)      # -> " "
p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> "an"
p s.scan(/\s+/)      # -> " "
p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> "example"
p s.scan(/\s+/)      # -> " "
p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> "string"
s.eos?               # -> true

p s.scan(/\s+/)      # -> nil
p s.scan(/\w+/)      # -> nil

Scanning a string means remembering the position of a scan pointer, which is just an index. The point of scanning is to move forward a bit at a time, so matches are sought after the scan pointer; usually immediately after it.

Given the string “test string”, here are the pertinent scan pointer positions:

  t e s t   s t r i n g
0 1 2 ...             1

When you scan for a pattern (a regular expression), the match must occur at the character after the scan pointer. If you use scan_until, then the match can occur anywhere after the scan pointer. In both cases, the scan pointer moves just beyond the last character of the match, ready to scan again from the next character onwards. This is demonstrated by the example above.

Method Categories

There are other methods besides the plain scanners. You can look ahead in the string without actually scanning. You can access the most recent match. You can modify the string being scanned, reset or terminate the scanner, find out or change the position of the scan pointer, skip ahead, and so on.

Advancing the Scan Pointer

Looking Ahead

Finding Where we Are

Setting Where we Are

Match Data


There are aliases to several of the methods.

ScriptError is the superclass for errors raised when a script can not be executed because of a LoadError, NotImplementedError or a SyntaxError. Note these type of ScriptErrors are not StandardError and will not be rescued unless it is specified explicitly (or its ancestor Exception).

An OpenStruct is a data structure, similar to a Hash, that allows the definition of arbitrary attributes with their accompanying values. This is accomplished by using Ruby’s metaprogramming to define methods on the class itself.


require "ostruct"

person = = "John Smith"
person.age  = 70      # => "John Smith"
person.age       # => 70
person.address   # => nil

An OpenStruct employs a Hash internally to store the attributes and values and can even be initialized with one:

australia = => "Australia", :capital => "Canberra")
  # => #<OpenStruct country="Australia", capital="Canberra">

Hash keys with spaces or characters that could normally not be used for method calls (e.g. ()[]*) will not be immediately available on the OpenStruct object as a method for retrieval or assignment, but can still be reached through the Object#send method or using [].

measurements ="length (in inches)" => 24)
measurements[:"length (in inches)"]       # => 24
measurements.send("length (in inches)")   # => 24

message = => true)
message.queued?                           # => true
message.send("queued?=", false)
message.queued?                           # => false

Removing the presence of an attribute requires the execution of the delete_field method as setting the property value to nil will not remove the attribute.

first_pet  = => "Rowdy", :owner => "John Smith")
second_pet = => "Rowdy")

first_pet.owner = nil
first_pet                 # => #<OpenStruct name="Rowdy", owner=nil>
first_pet == second_pet   # => false

first_pet                 # => #<OpenStruct name="Rowdy">
first_pet == second_pet   # => true

Ractor compatibility: A frozen OpenStruct with shareable values is itself shareable.


An OpenStruct utilizes Ruby’s method lookup structure to find and define the necessary methods for properties. This is accomplished through the methods method_missing and define_singleton_method.

This should be a consideration if there is a concern about the performance of the objects that are created, as there is much more overhead in the setting of these properties compared to using a Hash or a Struct. Creating an open struct from a small Hash and accessing a few of the entries can be 200 times slower than accessing the hash directly.

This is a potential security issue; building OpenStruct from untrusted user data (e.g. JSON web request) may be susceptible to a “symbol denial of service” attack since the keys create methods and names of methods are never garbage collected.

This may also be the source of incompatibilities between Ruby versions:

o =
o.then # => nil in Ruby < 2.6, enumerator for Ruby >= 2.6

Builtin methods may be overwritten this way, which may be a source of bugs or security issues:

o =
o.methods # => [:to_h, :marshal_load, :marshal_dump, :each_pair, ...
o.methods = [:foo, :bar]
o.methods # => [:foo, :bar]

To help remedy clashes, OpenStruct uses only protected/private methods ending with ! and defines aliases for builtin public methods by adding a !:

o = 'Bentley', class: :luxury)
o.class # => :luxury
o.class! # => OpenStruct

It is recommended (but not enforced) to not use fields ending in !; Note that a subclass’ methods may not be overwritten, nor can OpenStruct’s own methods ending with !.

For all these reasons, consider not using OpenStruct at all.

Class Struct provides a convenient way to create a simple class that can store and fetch values.

This example creates a subclass of Struct, Struct::Customer; the first argument, a string, is the name of the subclass; the other arguments, symbols, determine the members of the new subclass.

Customer ='Customer', :name, :address, :zip)       # => "Struct::Customer"
Customer.class      # => Class
Customer.superclass # => Struct

Corresponding to each member are two methods, a writer and a reader, that store and fetch values:

methods = Customer.instance_methods false
methods # => [:zip, :address=, :zip=, :address, :name, :name=]

An instance of the subclass may be created, and its members assigned values, via method ::new:

joe ="Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe # => #<struct Struct::Customer name="Joe Smith", address="123 Maple, Anytown NC", zip=12345>

The member values may be managed thus:    # => "Joe Smith" = 'Joseph Smith'    # => "Joseph Smith"

And thus; note that member name may be expressed as either a string or a symbol:

joe[:name]  # => "Joseph Smith"
joe[:name] = 'Joseph Smith, Jr.'
joe['name'] # => "Joseph Smith, Jr."

See Struct::new.

What’s Here

First, what’s elsewhere. Class Struct:

See also Data, which is a somewhat similar, but stricter concept for defining immutable value objects.

Here, class Struct provides methods that are useful for:

Methods for Creating a Struct Subclass

Methods for Querying

Methods for Comparing

Methods for Fetching

Methods for Assigning

Methods for Iterating

Methods for Converting

Ripper is a Ruby script parser.

You can get information from the parser with event-based style. Information such as abstract syntax trees or simple lexical analysis of the Ruby program.


Ripper provides an easy interface for parsing your program into a symbolic expression tree (or S-expression).

Understanding the output of the parser may come as a challenge, it’s recommended you use PP to format the output for legibility.

require 'ripper'
require 'pp'

pp Ripper.sexp('def hello(world) "Hello, #{world}!"; end')
  #=> [:program,
         [:@ident, "hello", [1, 4]],
          [:params, [[:@ident, "world", [1, 10]]], nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil]],
             [:@tstring_content, "Hello, ", [1, 18]],
             [:string_embexpr, [[:var_ref, [:@ident, "world", [1, 27]]]]],
             [:@tstring_content, "!", [1, 33]]]]],

You can see in the example above, the expression starts with :program.

From here, a method definition at :def, followed by the method’s identifier :@ident. After the method’s identifier comes the parentheses :paren and the method parameters under :params.

Next is the method body, starting at :bodystmt (stmt meaning statement), which contains the full definition of the method.

In our case, we’re simply returning a String, so next we have the :string_literal expression.

Within our :string_literal you’ll notice two @tstring_content, this is the literal part for Hello, and !. Between the two @tstring_content statements is a :string_embexpr, where embexpr is an embedded expression. Our expression consists of a local variable, or var_ref, with the identifier (@ident) of world.




Ruby License.

Raised in case of a stack overflow.

def me_myself_and_i

raises the exception:

SystemStackError: stack level too deep

A custom InputMethod class used by XMP for evaluating string io.

Represents the use of the ‘&&=` operator for assignment to an instance variable.

@target &&= value

Represents assigning to an instance variable using an operator that isn’t ‘=`.

@target += value

Represents the use of the ‘||=` operator for assignment to an instance variable.

@target ||= value

Represents writing to an instance variable.

@foo = 1

Represents a string literal that contains interpolation.

"foo #{bar} baz"

Represents an xstring literal that contains interpolation.

`foo #{bar} baz`

Represents a string literal, a string contained within a ‘%w` list, or plain string content within an interpolated string.



"foo #{bar} baz"
 ^^^^      ^^^^

Represents an xstring literal with no interpolation.


Mini String IO [Private]

Acts like a StringIO with reduced API, but without having to require that class.

AbstractSyntaxTree provides methods to parse Ruby code into abstract syntax trees. The nodes in the tree are instances of RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree::Node.

This module is MRI specific as it exposes implementation details of the MRI abstract syntax tree.

This module is experimental and its API is not stable, therefore it might change without notice. As examples, the order of children nodes is not guaranteed, the number of children nodes might change, there is no way to access children nodes by name, etc.

If you are looking for a stable API or an API working under multiple Ruby implementations, consider using the parser gem or Ripper. If you would like to make RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree stable, please join the discussion at

Flags for string nodes.

Numeric is the class from which all higher-level numeric classes should inherit.

Numeric allows instantiation of heap-allocated objects. Other core numeric classes such as Integer are implemented as immediates, which means that each Integer is a single immutable object which is always passed by value.

a = 1
1.object_id == a.object_id   #=> true

There can only ever be one instance of the integer 1, for example. Ruby ensures this by preventing instantiation. If duplication is attempted, the same instance is returned.                   #=> NoMethodError: undefined method `new' for Integer:Class
1.dup                            #=> 1
1.object_id == 1.dup.object_id   #=> true

For this reason, Numeric should be used when defining other numeric classes.

Classes which inherit from Numeric must implement coerce, which returns a two-member Array containing an object that has been coerced into an instance of the new class and self (see coerce).

Inheriting classes should also implement arithmetic operator methods (+, -, * and /) and the <=> operator (see Comparable). These methods may rely on coerce to ensure interoperability with instances of other numeric classes.

class Tally < Numeric
  def initialize(string)
    @string = string

  def to_s

  def to_i

  def coerce(other)
    ['|' * other.to_i), self]

  def <=>(other)
    to_i <=> other.to_i

  def +(other)'|' * (to_i + other.to_i))

  def -(other)'|' * (to_i - other.to_i))

  def *(other)'|' * (to_i * other.to_i))

  def /(other)'|' * (to_i / other.to_i))

tally ='||')
puts tally * 2            #=> "||||"
puts tally > 1            #=> true

What’s Here

First, what’s elsewhere. Class Numeric:

Here, class Numeric provides methods for:





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