What's Here

Module Enumerable provides methods that are useful to a collection class for:

Methods for Querying

These methods return information about the Enumerable other than the elements themselves:

include?, member?

Returns true if self == object, false otherwise.

all?

Returns true if all elements meet a specified criterion; false otherwise.

any?

Returns true if any element meets a specified criterion; false otherwise.

none?

Returns true if no element meets a specified criterion; false otherwise.

one?

Returns true if exactly one element meets a specified criterion; false otherwise.

count

Returns the count of elements, based on an argument or block criterion, if given.

tally

Returns a new Hash containing the counts of occurrences of each element.

Methods for Fetching

These methods return entries from the Enumerable, without modifying it:

Leading, trailing, or all elements:

entries, to_a

Returns all elements.

first

Returns the first element or leading elements.

take

Returns a specified number of leading elements.

drop

Returns a specified number of trailing elements.

take_while

Returns leading elements as specified by the given block.

drop_while

Returns trailing elements as specified by the given block.

Minimum and maximum value elements:

min

Returns the elements whose values are smallest among the elements, as determined by <=> or a given block.

max

Returns the elements whose values are largest among the elements, as determined by <=> or a given block.

minmax

Returns a 2-element Array containing the smallest and largest elements.

min_by

Returns the smallest element, as determined by the given block.

max_by

Returns the largest element, as determined by the given block.

minmax_by

Returns the smallest and largest elements, as determined by the given block.

Groups, slices, and partitions:

group_by

Returns a Hash that partitions the elements into groups.

partition

Returns elements partitioned into two new Arrays, as determined by the given block.

slice_after

Returns a new Enumerator whose entries are a partition of self, based either on a given object or a given block.

slice_before

Returns a new Enumerator whose entries are a partition of self, based either on a given object or a given block.

slice_when

Returns a new Enumerator whose entries are a partition of self based on the given block.

chunk

Returns elements organized into chunks as specified by the given block.

chunk_while

Returns elements organized into chunks as specified by the given block.

Methods for Searching and Filtering

These methods return elements that meet a specified criterion.

find, detect

Returns an element selected by the block.

find_all, filter, select

Returns elements selected by the block.

find_index

Returns the index of an element selected by a given object or block.

reject

Returns elements not rejected by the block.

uniq

Returns elements that are not duplicates.

Methods for Sorting

These methods return elements in sorted order.

sort

Returns the elements, sorted by <=> or the given block.

sort_by

Returns the elements, sorted by the given block.

Methods for Iterating

each_entry

Calls the block with each successive element (slightly different from each).

each_with_index

Calls the block with each successive element and its index.

each_with_object

Calls the block with each successive element and a given object.

each_slice

Calls the block with successive non-overlapping slices.

each_cons

Calls the block with successive overlapping slices. (different from each_slice).

reverse_each

Calls the block with each successive element, in reverse order.

Other Methods

map, collect

Returns objects returned by the block.

filter_map

Returns truthy objects returned by the block.

flat_map, collect_concat

Returns flattened objects returned by the block.

grep

Returns elements selected by a given object or objects returned by a given block.

grep_v

Returns elements selected by a given object or objects returned by a given block.

reduce, inject

Returns the object formed by combining all elements.

sum

Returns the sum of the elements, using method +++.

zip

Combines each element with elements from other enumerables; returns the n-tuples or calls the block with each.

cycle

Calls the block with each element, cycling repeatedly.

Usage

To use module Enumerable in a collection class:

  • Include it:

    include Enumerable
    
  • Implement method #each which must yield successive elements of the collection. This method will be called by almost any Enumerable method.

Enumerable in Ruby Core Classes

Some Ruby classes include Enumerable:

Virtually all methods in Enumerable call method #each in the including class:

  • Hash#each yields the next key-value pair as a 2-element Array.

  • Struct#each yields the next name-value pair as a 2-element Array.

  • For the other classes above, #each yields the next object from the collection.

About the Examples

The example code snippets for the Enumerable methods:

  • Always show the use of one or more Array-like classes (often Array itself).

  • Sometimes show the use of a Hash-like class. For some methods, though, the usage would not make sense, and so it is not shown. Example: tally would find exactly one of each Hash entry.


Instance Methods


Passes each element of the collection to the given block. The method returns true if the block never returns false or nil. If the block is not given, Ruby adds an implicit block of { |obj| obj } which will cause all? to return true when none of the collection members are false or nil.

If instead a pattern is supplied, the method returns whether pattern === element for every collection member.

%w[ant bear cat].all? { |word| word.length >= 3 } #=> true
%w[ant bear cat].all? { |word| word.length >= 4 } #=> false
%w[ant bear cat].all?(/t/)                        #=> false
[1, 2i, 3.14].all?(Numeric)                       #=> true
[nil, true, 99].all?                              #=> false
[].all?                                           #=> true

Passes each element of the collection to the given block. The method returns true if the block ever returns a value other than false or nil. If the block is not given, Ruby adds an implicit block of { |obj| obj } that will cause any? to return true if at least one of the collection members is not false or nil.

If instead a pattern is supplied, the method returns whether pattern === element for any collection member.

%w[ant bear cat].any? { |word| word.length >= 3 } #=> true
%w[ant bear cat].any? { |word| word.length >= 4 } #=> true
%w[ant bear cat].any?(/d/)                        #=> false
[nil, true, 99].any?(Integer)                     #=> true
[nil, true, 99].any?                              #=> true
[].any?                                           #=> false

Returns an enumerator object generated from this enumerator and given enumerables.

e = (1..3).chain([4, 5])
e.to_a #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Enumerates over the items, chunking them together based on the return value of the block.

Consecutive elements which return the same block value are chunked together.

For example, consecutive even numbers and odd numbers can be chunked as follows.

[3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 6, 5, 3, 5].chunk { |n|
  n.even?
}.each { |even, ary|
  p [even, ary]
}
#=> [false, [3, 1]]
#   [true, [4]]
#   [false, [1, 5, 9]]
#   [true, [2, 6]]
#   [false, [5, 3, 5]]

This method is especially useful for sorted series of elements. The following example counts words for each initial letter.

open("/usr/share/dict/words", "r:iso-8859-1") { |f|
  f.chunk { |line| line.upcase.ord }.each { |ch, lines| p [ch.chr, lines.length] }
}
#=> ["\n", 1]
#   ["A", 1327]
#   ["B", 1372]
#   ["C", 1507]
#   ["D", 791]
#   ...

The following key values have special meaning:

  • nil and :_separator specifies that the elements should be dropped.

  • :_alone specifies that the element should be chunked by itself.

Any other symbols that begin with an underscore will raise an error:

items.chunk { |item| :_underscore }
#=> RuntimeError: symbols beginning with an underscore are reserved

nil and :_separator can be used to ignore some elements.

For example, the sequence of hyphens in svn log can be eliminated as follows:

sep = "-"*72 + "\n"
IO.popen("svn log README") { |f|
  f.chunk { |line|
    line != sep || nil
  }.each { |_, lines|
    pp lines
  }
}
#=> ["r20018 | knu | 2008-10-29 13:20:42 +0900 (Wed, 29 Oct 2008) | 2 lines\n",
#    "\n",
#    "* README, README.ja: Update the portability section.\n",
#    "\n"]
#   ["r16725 | knu | 2008-05-31 23:34:23 +0900 (Sat, 31 May 2008) | 2 lines\n",
#    "\n",
#    "* README, README.ja: Add a note about default C flags.\n",
#    "\n"]
#   ...

Paragraphs separated by empty lines can be parsed as follows:

File.foreach("README").chunk { |line|
  /\A\s*\z/ !~ line || nil
}.each { |_, lines|
  pp lines
}

:_alone can be used to force items into their own chunk. For example, you can put lines that contain a URL by themselves, and chunk the rest of the lines together, like this:

pattern = /http/
open(filename) { |f|
  f.chunk { |line| line =~ pattern ? :_alone : true }.each { |key, lines|
    pp lines
  }
}

If no block is given, an enumerator to `chunk` is returned instead.

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements. The beginnings of chunks are defined by the block.

This method splits each chunk using adjacent elements, elt_before and elt_after, in the receiver enumerator. This method split chunks between elt_before and elt_after where the block returns false.

The block is called the length of the receiver enumerator minus one.

The result enumerator yields the chunked elements as an array. So each method can be called as follows:

enum.chunk_while { |elt_before, elt_after| bool }.each { |ary| ... }

Other methods of the Enumerator class and Enumerable module, such as to_a, map, etc., are also usable.

For example, one-by-one increasing subsequence can be chunked as follows:

a = [1,2,4,9,10,11,12,15,16,19,20,21]
b = a.chunk_while {|i, j| i+1 == j }
p b.to_a #=> [[1, 2], [4], [9, 10, 11, 12], [15, 16], [19, 20, 21]]
c = b.map {|a| a.length < 3 ? a : "#{a.first}-#{a.last}" }
p c #=> [[1, 2], [4], "9-12", [15, 16], "19-21"]
d = c.join(",")
p d #=> "1,2,4,9-12,15,16,19-21"

Increasing (non-decreasing) subsequence can be chunked as follows:

a = [0, 9, 2, 2, 3, 2, 7, 5, 9, 5]
p a.chunk_while {|i, j| i <= j }.to_a
#=> [[0, 9], [2, 2, 3], [2, 7], [5, 9], [5]]

Adjacent evens and odds can be chunked as follows: (Enumerable#chunk is another way to do it.)

a = [7, 5, 9, 2, 0, 7, 9, 4, 2, 0]
p a.chunk_while {|i, j| i.even? == j.even? }.to_a
#=> [[7, 5, 9], [2, 0], [7, 9], [4, 2, 0]]

Enumerable#slice_when does the same, except splitting when the block returns true instead of false.

Returns an array of objects returned by the block.

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements; returns an array of the objects returned by the block:

(0..4).map {|i| i*i }                               # => [0, 1, 4, 9, 16]
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.map {|key, value| value*2} # => [0, 2, 4]

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Returns an array of all non-nil elements from enumeration.

def with_nils
  yield 1
  yield 2
  yield nil
  yield 3
end

to_enum(:with_nils).compact
# => [1, 2, 3]

See also Array#compact.

Returns the count of elements, based on an argument or block criterion, if given.

With no argument and no block given, returns the number of elements:

[0, 1, 2].count                # => 3
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.count # => 3

With argument object given, returns the number of elements that are == to object:

[0, 1, 2, 1].count(1)           # => 2

With a block given, calls the block with each element and returns the number of elements for which the block returns a truthy value:

[0, 1, 2, 3].count {|element| element < 2}              # => 2
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.count {|key, value| value < 2} # => 2

Calls block for each element of enum repeatedly n times or forever if none or nil is given. If a non-positive number is given or the collection is empty, does nothing. Returns nil if the loop has finished without getting interrupted.

Enumerable#cycle saves elements in an internal array so changes to enum after the first pass have no effect.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

a = ["a", "b", "c"]
a.cycle { |x| puts x }  # print, a, b, c, a, b, c,.. forever.
a.cycle(2) { |x| puts x }  # print, a, b, c, a, b, c.

Drops first n elements from enum, and returns rest elements in an array.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0]
a.drop(3)             #=> [4, 5, 0]

Drops elements up to, but not including, the first element for which the block returns nil or false and returns an array containing the remaining elements.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0]
a.drop_while { |i| i < 3 }   #=> [3, 4, 5, 0]

Iterates the given block for each array of consecutive <n> elements. If no block is given, returns an enumerator.

e.g.:

(1..10).each_cons(3) { |a| p a }
# outputs below
[1, 2, 3]
[2, 3, 4]
[3, 4, 5]
[4, 5, 6]
[5, 6, 7]
[6, 7, 8]
[7, 8, 9]
[8, 9, 10]

Calls block once for each element in self, passing that element as a parameter, converting multiple values from yield to an array.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

class Foo
  include Enumerable
  def each
    yield 1
    yield 1, 2
    yield
  end
end
Foo.new.each_entry{ |o| p o }

produces:

1
[1, 2]
nil

Iterates the given block for each slice of <n> elements. If no block is given, returns an enumerator.

(1..10).each_slice(3) { |a| p a }
# outputs below
[1, 2, 3]
[4, 5, 6]
[7, 8, 9]
[10]

Calls block with two arguments, the item and its index, for each item in enum. Given arguments are passed through to each().

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

hash = Hash.new
%w(cat dog wombat).each_with_index { |item, index|
  hash[item] = index
}
hash   #=> {"cat"=>0, "dog"=>1, "wombat"=>2}

Iterates the given block for each element with an arbitrary object given, and returns the initially given object.

If no block is given, returns an enumerator.

evens = (1..10).each_with_object([]) { |i, a| a << i*2 }
#=> [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20]
An alias for find_all

Returns an array containing truthy elements returned by the block.

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements; returns an array containing each truthy value returned by the block:

(0..9).filter_map {|i| i * 2 if i.even? }                              # => [0, 4, 8, 12, 16]
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.filter_map {|key, value| key if value.even? } # => [:foo, :baz]

When no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Returns the first element for which the block returns a truthy value.

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements of the collection; returns the first element for which the block returns a truthy value:

(0..9).find {|element| element > 2}                # => 3

If no such element is found, calls if_none_proc and returns its return value.

(0..9).find(proc {false}) {|element| element > 12} # => false
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.find {|key, value| key.start_with?('b') }            # => [:bar, 1]
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.find(proc {[]}) {|key, value| key.start_with?('c') } # => []

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Returns an array containing elements selected by the block.

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements; returns an array of those elements for which the block returns a truthy value:

(0..9).select {|element| element % 3 == 0 } # => [0, 3, 6, 9]
a = {foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.select {|key, value| key.start_with?('b') }
a # => {:bar=>1, :baz=>2}

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Related: reject.

Returns the index of the first element that meets a specified criterion, or nil if no such element is found.

With argument object given, returns the index of the first element that is == object:

['a', 'b', 'c', 'b'].find_index('b') # => 1

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements; returns the first element for which the block returns a truthy value:

['a', 'b', 'c', 'b'].find_index {|element| element.start_with?('b') } # => 1
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.find_index {|key, value| value > 1 }         # => 2

With no argument and no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Returns the first element, or the first n elements, of the enumerable. If the enumerable is empty, the first form returns nil, and the second form returns an empty array.

%w[foo bar baz].first     #=> "foo"
%w[foo bar baz].first(2)  #=> ["foo", "bar"]
%w[foo bar baz].first(10) #=> ["foo", "bar", "baz"]
[].first                  #=> nil
[].first(10)              #=> []

Returns an array of flattened objects returned by the block.

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements; returns a flattened array of objects returned by the block:

[0, 1, 2, 3].flat_map {|element| -element }                    # => [0, -1, -2, -3]
[0, 1, 2, 3].flat_map {|element| [element, -element] }         # => [0, 0, 1, -1, 2, -2, 3, -3]
[[0, 1], [2, 3]].flat_map {|e| e + [100] }                     # => [0, 1, 100, 2, 3, 100]
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.flat_map {|key, value| [key, value] } # => [:foo, 0, :bar, 1, :baz, 2]

With no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Alias: collect_concat.

Returns an array of objects based elements of self that match the given pattern.

With no block given, returns an array containing each element for which pattern === element is true:

a = ['foo', 'bar', 'car', 'moo']
a.grep(/ar/)                   # => ["bar", "car"]
(1..10).grep(3..8)             # => [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
['a', 'b', 0, 1].grep(Integer) # => [0, 1]

With a block given, calls the block with each matching element and returns an array containing each object returned by the block:

a = ['foo', 'bar', 'car', 'moo']
a.grep(/ar/) {|element| element.upcase } # => ["BAR", "CAR"]

Related: grep_v.

Returns an array of objects based on elements of self that don't match the given pattern.

With no block given, returns an array containing each element for which pattern === element is false:

a = ['foo', 'bar', 'car', 'moo']
a.grep_v(/ar/)                   # => ["foo", "moo"]
(1..10).grep_v(3..8)             # => [1, 2, 9, 10]
['a', 'b', 0, 1].grep_v(Integer) # => ["a", "b"]

With a block given, calls the block with each non-matching element and returns an array containing each object returned by the block:

a = ['foo', 'bar', 'car', 'moo']
a.grep_v(/ar/) {|element| element.upcase } # => ["FOO", "MOO"]

Related: grep.

Groups the collection by result of the block. Returns a hash where the keys are the evaluated result from the block and the values are arrays of elements in the collection that correspond to the key.

If no block is given an enumerator is returned.

(1..6).group_by { |i| i%3 }   #=> {0=>[3, 6], 1=>[1, 4], 2=>[2, 5]}

Combines all elements of enum by applying a binary operation, specified by a block or a symbol that names a method or operator.

The inject and reduce methods are aliases. There is no performance benefit to either.

If you specify a block, then for each element in enum the block is passed an accumulator value (memo) and the element. If you specify a symbol instead, then each element in the collection will be passed to the named method of memo. In either case, the result becomes the new value for memo. At the end of the iteration, the final value of memo is the return value for the method.

If you do not explicitly specify an initial value for memo, then the first element of collection is used as the initial value of memo.

# Sum some numbers
(5..10).reduce(:+)                             #=> 45
# Same using a block and inject
(5..10).inject { |sum, n| sum + n }            #=> 45
# Multiply some numbers
(5..10).reduce(1, :*)                          #=> 151200
# Same using a block
(5..10).inject(1) { |product, n| product * n } #=> 151200
# find the longest word
longest = %w{ cat sheep bear }.inject do |memo, word|
   memo.length > word.length ? memo : word
end
longest                                        #=> "sheep"

Returns an Enumerator::Lazy, which redefines most Enumerable methods to postpone enumeration and enumerate values only on an as-needed basis.

Example

The following program finds pythagorean triples:

def pythagorean_triples
  (1..Float::INFINITY).lazy.flat_map {|z|
    (1..z).flat_map {|x|
      (x..z).select {|y|
        x**2 + y**2 == z**2
      }.map {|y|
        [x, y, z]
      }
    }
  }
end
# show first ten pythagorean triples
p pythagorean_triples.take(10).force # take is lazy, so force is needed
p pythagorean_triples.first(10)      # first is eager
# show pythagorean triples less than 100
p pythagorean_triples.take_while { |*, z| z < 100 }.force

Returns the object in enum with the maximum value. The first form assumes all objects implement <=>; the second uses the block to return a <=> b.

a = %w(albatross dog horse)
a.max                                   #=> "horse"
a.max { |a, b| a.length <=> b.length }  #=> "albatross"

If the n argument is given, maximum n elements are returned as an array, sorted in descending order.

a = %w[albatross dog horse]
a.max(2)                                  #=> ["horse", "dog"]
a.max(2) {|a, b| a.length <=> b.length }  #=> ["albatross", "horse"]
[5, 1, 3, 4, 2].max(3)                    #=> [5, 4, 3]

Returns the object in enum that gives the maximum value from the given block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

a = %w(albatross dog horse)
a.max_by { |x| x.length }   #=> "albatross"

If the n argument is given, maximum n elements are returned as an array. These n elements are sorted by the value from the given block, in descending order.

a = %w[albatross dog horse]
a.max_by(2) {|x| x.length } #=> ["albatross", "horse"]

enum.max_by(n) can be used to implement weighted random sampling. Following example implements and use Enumerable#wsample.

module Enumerable
  # weighted random sampling.
  #
  # Pavlos S. Efraimidis, Paul G. Spirakis
  # Weighted random sampling with a reservoir
  # Information Processing Letters
  # Volume 97, Issue 5 (16 March 2006)
  def wsample(n)
    self.max_by(n) {|v| rand ** (1.0/yield(v)) }
  end
end
e = (-20..20).to_a*10000
a = e.wsample(20000) {|x|
  Math.exp(-(x/5.0)**2) # normal distribution
}
# a is 20000 samples from e.
p a.length #=> 20000
h = a.group_by {|x| x }
-10.upto(10) {|x| puts "*" * (h[x].length/30.0).to_i if h[x] }
#=> *
#   ***
#   ******
#   ***********
#   ******************
#   *****************************
#   *****************************************
#   ****************************************************
#   ***************************************************************
#   ********************************************************************
#   ***********************************************************************
#   ***********************************************************************
#   **************************************************************
#   ****************************************************
#   ***************************************
#   ***************************
#   ******************
#   ***********
#   *******
#   ***
#   *

Returns true if any member of enum equals obj. Equality is tested using ==.

(1..10).include? 5  #=> true
(1..10).include? 15 #=> false
(1..10).member? 5   #=> true
(1..10).member? 15  #=> false

Returns the object in enum with the minimum value. The first form assumes all objects implement <=>; the second uses the block to return a <=> b.

a = %w(albatross dog horse)
a.min                                   #=> "albatross"
a.min { |a, b| a.length <=> b.length }  #=> "dog"

If the n argument is given, minimum n elements are returned as a sorted array.

a = %w[albatross dog horse]
a.min(2)                                  #=> ["albatross", "dog"]
a.min(2) {|a, b| a.length <=> b.length }  #=> ["dog", "horse"]
[5, 1, 3, 4, 2].min(3)                    #=> [1, 2, 3]

Returns the object in enum that gives the minimum value from the given block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

a = %w(albatross dog horse)
a.min_by { |x| x.length }   #=> "dog"

If the n argument is given, minimum n elements are returned as an array. These n elements are sorted by the value from the given block.

a = %w[albatross dog horse]
p a.min_by(2) {|x| x.length } #=> ["dog", "horse"]

Returns a two element array which contains the minimum and the maximum value in the enumerable. The first form assumes all objects implement <=>; the second uses the block to return a <=> b.

a = %w(albatross dog horse)
a.minmax                                  #=> ["albatross", "horse"]
a.minmax { |a, b| a.length <=> b.length } #=> ["dog", "albatross"]

Returns a two element array containing the objects in enum that correspond to the minimum and maximum values respectively from the given block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

a = %w(albatross dog horse)
a.minmax_by { |x| x.length }   #=> ["dog", "albatross"]

Passes each element of the collection to the given block. The method returns true if the block never returns true for all elements. If the block is not given, none? will return true only if none of the collection members is true.

If instead a pattern is supplied, the method returns whether pattern === element for none of the collection members.

%w{ant bear cat}.none? { |word| word.length == 5 } #=> true
%w{ant bear cat}.none? { |word| word.length >= 4 } #=> false
%w{ant bear cat}.none?(/d/)                        #=> true
[1, 3.14, 42].none?(Float)                         #=> false
[].none?                                           #=> true
[nil].none?                                        #=> true
[nil, false].none?                                 #=> true
[nil, false, true].none?                           #=> false

Passes each element of the collection to the given block. The method returns true if the block returns true exactly once. If the block is not given, one? will return true only if exactly one of the collection members is true.

If instead a pattern is supplied, the method returns whether pattern === element for exactly one collection member.

%w{ant bear cat}.one? { |word| word.length == 4 }  #=> true
%w{ant bear cat}.one? { |word| word.length > 4 }   #=> false
%w{ant bear cat}.one? { |word| word.length < 4 }   #=> false
%w{ant bear cat}.one?(/t/)                         #=> false
[ nil, true, 99 ].one?                             #=> false
[ nil, true, false ].one?                          #=> true
[ nil, true, 99 ].one?(Integer)                    #=> true
[].one?                                            #=> false

Returns two arrays, the first containing the elements of enum for which the block evaluates to true, the second containing the rest.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

(1..6).partition { |v| v.even? }  #=> [[2, 4, 6], [1, 3, 5]]

Returns an array of objects rejected by the block.

With a block given, calls the block with successive elements; returns an array of those elements for which the block returns nil or false:

(0..9).reject {|i| i * 2 if i.even? }                             # => [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]
{foo: 0, bar: 1, baz: 2}.reject {|key, value| key if value.odd? } # => {:foo=>0, :baz=>2}

When no block given, returns an Enumerator.

Related: select.

Builds a temporary array and traverses that array in reverse order.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

(1..3).reverse_each { |v| p v }

produces:

3
2
1

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements. The ends of chunks are defined by pattern and the block.

If pattern === elt returns true or the block returns true for the element, the element is end of a chunk.

The === and block is called from the first element to the last element of enum.

The result enumerator yields the chunked elements as an array. So each method can be called as follows:

enum.slice_after(pattern).each { |ary| ... }
enum.slice_after { |elt| bool }.each { |ary| ... }

Other methods of the Enumerator class and Enumerable module, such as map, etc., are also usable.

For example, continuation lines (lines end with backslash) can be concatenated as follows:

lines = ["foo\n", "bar\\\n", "baz\n", "\n", "qux\n"]
e = lines.slice_after(/(?<!\\)\n\z/)
p e.to_a
#=> [["foo\n"], ["bar\\\n", "baz\n"], ["\n"], ["qux\n"]]
p e.map {|ll| ll[0...-1].map {|l| l.sub(/\\\n\z/, "") }.join + ll.last }
#=>["foo\n", "barbaz\n", "\n", "qux\n"]

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements. The beginnings of chunks are defined by pattern and the block.

If pattern === elt returns true or the block returns true for the element, the element is beginning of a chunk.

The === and block is called from the first element to the last element of enum. The result for the first element is ignored.

The result enumerator yields the chunked elements as an array. So each method can be called as follows:

enum.slice_before(pattern).each { |ary| ... }
enum.slice_before { |elt| bool }.each { |ary| ... }

Other methods of the Enumerator class and Enumerable module, such as to_a, map, etc., are also usable.

For example, iteration over ChangeLog entries can be implemented as follows:

# iterate over ChangeLog entries.
open("ChangeLog") { |f|
  f.slice_before(/\A\S/).each { |e| pp e }
}

# same as above.  block is used instead of pattern argument.
open("ChangeLog") { |f|
  f.slice_before { |line| /\A\S/ === line }.each { |e| pp e }
}

“svn proplist -R” produces multiline output for each file. They can be chunked as follows:

IO.popen([{"LC_ALL"=>"C"}, "svn", "proplist", "-R"]) { |f|
  f.lines.slice_before(/\AProp/).each { |lines| p lines }
}
#=> ["Properties on '.':\n", "  svn:ignore\n", "  svk:merge\n"]
#   ["Properties on 'goruby.c':\n", "  svn:eol-style\n"]
#   ["Properties on 'complex.c':\n", "  svn:mime-type\n", "  svn:eol-style\n"]
#   ["Properties on 'regparse.c':\n", "  svn:eol-style\n"]
#   ...

If the block needs to maintain state over multiple elements, local variables can be used. For example, three or more consecutive increasing numbers can be squashed as follows (see chunk_while for a better way):

a = [0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9]
prev = a[0]
p a.slice_before { |e|
  prev, prev2 = e, prev
  prev2 + 1 != e
}.map { |es|
  es.length <= 2 ? es.join(",") : "#{es.first}-#{es.last}"
}.join(",")
#=> "0,2-4,6,7,9"

However local variables should be used carefully if the result enumerator is enumerated twice or more. The local variables should be initialized for each enumeration. Enumerator.new can be used to do it.

# Word wrapping.  This assumes all characters have same width.
def wordwrap(words, maxwidth)
  Enumerator.new {|y|
    # cols is initialized in Enumerator.new.
    cols = 0
    words.slice_before { |w|
      cols += 1 if cols != 0
      cols += w.length
      if maxwidth < cols
        cols = w.length
        true
      else
        false
      end
    }.each {|ws| y.yield ws }
  }
end
text = (1..20).to_a.join(" ")
enum = wordwrap(text.split(/\s+/), 10)
puts "-"*10
enum.each { |ws| puts ws.join(" ") } # first enumeration.
puts "-"*10
enum.each { |ws| puts ws.join(" ") } # second enumeration generates same result as the first.
puts "-"*10
#=> ----------
#   1 2 3 4 5
#   6 7 8 9 10
#   11 12 13
#   14 15 16
#   17 18 19
#   20
#   ----------
#   1 2 3 4 5
#   6 7 8 9 10
#   11 12 13
#   14 15 16
#   17 18 19
#   20
#   ----------

mbox contains series of mails which start with Unix From line. So each mail can be extracted by slice before Unix From line.

# parse mbox
open("mbox") { |f|
  f.slice_before { |line|
    line.start_with? "From "
  }.each { |mail|
    unix_from = mail.shift
    i = mail.index("\n")
    header = mail[0...i]
    body = mail[(i+1)..-1]
    body.pop if body.last == "\n"
    fields = header.slice_before { |line| !" \t".include?(line[0]) }.to_a
    p unix_from
    pp fields
    pp body
  }
}

# split mails in mbox (slice before Unix From line after an empty line)
open("mbox") { |f|
  emp = true
  f.slice_before { |line|
    prevemp = emp
    emp = line == "\n"
    prevemp && line.start_with?("From ")
  }.each { |mail|
    mail.pop if mail.last == "\n"
    pp mail
  }
}

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements. The beginnings of chunks are defined by the block.

This method splits each chunk using adjacent elements, elt_before and elt_after, in the receiver enumerator. This method split chunks between elt_before and elt_after where the block returns true.

The block is called the length of the receiver enumerator minus one.

The result enumerator yields the chunked elements as an array. So each method can be called as follows:

enum.slice_when { |elt_before, elt_after| bool }.each { |ary| ... }

Other methods of the Enumerator class and Enumerable module, such as to_a, map, etc., are also usable.

For example, one-by-one increasing subsequence can be chunked as follows:

a = [1,2,4,9,10,11,12,15,16,19,20,21]
b = a.slice_when {|i, j| i+1 != j }
p b.to_a #=> [[1, 2], [4], [9, 10, 11, 12], [15, 16], [19, 20, 21]]
c = b.map {|a| a.length < 3 ? a : "#{a.first}-#{a.last}" }
p c #=> [[1, 2], [4], "9-12", [15, 16], "19-21"]
d = c.join(",")
p d #=> "1,2,4,9-12,15,16,19-21"

Near elements (threshold: 6) in sorted array can be chunked as follows:

a = [3, 11, 14, 25, 28, 29, 29, 41, 55, 57]
p a.slice_when {|i, j| 6 < j - i }.to_a
#=> [[3], [11, 14], [25, 28, 29, 29], [41], [55, 57]]

Increasing (non-decreasing) subsequence can be chunked as follows:

a = [0, 9, 2, 2, 3, 2, 7, 5, 9, 5]
p a.slice_when {|i, j| i > j }.to_a
#=> [[0, 9], [2, 2, 3], [2, 7], [5, 9], [5]]

Adjacent evens and odds can be chunked as follows: (Enumerable#chunk is another way to do it.)

a = [7, 5, 9, 2, 0, 7, 9, 4, 2, 0]
p a.slice_when {|i, j| i.even? != j.even? }.to_a
#=> [[7, 5, 9], [2, 0], [7, 9], [4, 2, 0]]

Paragraphs (non-empty lines with trailing empty lines) can be chunked as follows: (See Enumerable#chunk to ignore empty lines.)

lines = ["foo\n", "bar\n", "\n", "baz\n", "qux\n"]
p lines.slice_when {|l1, l2| /\A\s*\z/ =~ l1 && /\S/ =~ l2 }.to_a
#=> [["foo\n", "bar\n", "\n"], ["baz\n", "qux\n"]]

Enumerable#chunk_while does the same, except splitting when the block returns false instead of true.

Returns an array containing the items in enum sorted.

Comparisons for the sort will be done using the items' own <=> operator or using an optional code block.

The block must implement a comparison between a and b and return an integer less than 0 when b follows a, 0 when a and b are equivalent, or an integer greater than 0 when a follows b.

The result is not guaranteed to be stable. When the comparison of two elements returns 0, the order of the elements is unpredictable.

%w(rhea kea flea).sort           #=> ["flea", "kea", "rhea"]
(1..10).sort { |a, b| b <=> a }  #=> [10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

See also Enumerable#sort_by. It implements a Schwartzian transform which is useful when key computation or comparison is expensive.

Sorts enum using a set of keys generated by mapping the values in enum through the given block.

The result is not guaranteed to be stable. When two keys are equal, the order of the corresponding elements is unpredictable.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

%w{apple pear fig}.sort_by { |word| word.length }
              #=> ["fig", "pear", "apple"]

The current implementation of sort_by generates an array of tuples containing the original collection element and the mapped value. This makes sort_by fairly expensive when the keysets are simple.

require 'benchmark'

a = (1..100000).map { rand(100000) }

Benchmark.bm(10) do |b|
  b.report("Sort")    { a.sort }
  b.report("Sort by") { a.sort_by { |a| a } }
end

produces:

user     system      total        real
Sort        0.180000   0.000000   0.180000 (  0.175469)
Sort by     1.980000   0.040000   2.020000 (  2.013586)

However, consider the case where comparing the keys is a non-trivial operation. The following code sorts some files on modification time using the basic sort method.

files = Dir["*"]
sorted = files.sort { |a, b| File.new(a).mtime <=> File.new(b).mtime }
sorted   #=> ["mon", "tues", "wed", "thurs"]

This sort is inefficient: it generates two new File objects during every comparison. A slightly better technique is to use the Kernel#test method to generate the modification times directly.

files = Dir["*"]
sorted = files.sort { |a, b|
  test(?M, a) <=> test(?M, b)
}
sorted   #=> ["mon", "tues", "wed", "thurs"]

This still generates many unnecessary Time objects. A more efficient technique is to cache the sort keys (modification times in this case) before the sort. Perl users often call this approach a Schwartzian transform, after Randal Schwartz. We construct a temporary array, where each element is an array containing our sort key along with the filename. We sort this array, and then extract the filename from the result.

sorted = Dir["*"].collect { |f|
   [test(?M, f), f]
}.sort.collect { |f| f[1] }
sorted   #=> ["mon", "tues", "wed", "thurs"]

This is exactly what sort_by does internally.

sorted = Dir["*"].sort_by { |f| test(?M, f) }
sorted   #=> ["mon", "tues", "wed", "thurs"]

To produce the reverse of a specific order, the following can be used:

ary.sort_by { ... }.reverse!

Returns the sum of elements in an Enumerable.

If a block is given, the block is applied to each element before addition.

If enum is empty, it returns init.

For example:

{ 1 => 10, 2 => 20 }.sum {|k, v| k * v }  #=> 50
(1..10).sum                               #=> 55
(1..10).sum {|v| v * 2 }                  #=> 110
('a'..'z').sum                            #=> TypeError

This method can be used for non-numeric objects by explicit init argument.

{ 1 => 10, 2 => 20 }.sum([])                   #=> [1, 10, 2, 20]
"a\nb\nc".each_line.lazy.map(&:chomp).sum("")  #=> "abc"

If the method is applied to an Integer range without a block, the sum is not done by iteration, but instead using Gauss's summation formula.

Enumerable#sum method may not respect method redefinition of “+” methods such as Integer#+, or “each” methods such as Range#each.

Returns first n elements from enum.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0]
a.take(3)             #=> [1, 2, 3]
a.take(30)            #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0]

Passes elements to the block until the block returns nil or false, then stops iterating and returns an array of all prior elements.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0]
a.take_while { |i| i < 3 }   #=> [1, 2]

Tallies the collection, i.e., counts the occurrences of each element. Returns a hash with the elements of the collection as keys and the corresponding counts as values.

["a", "b", "c", "b"].tally  #=> {"a"=>1, "b"=>2, "c"=>1}

If a hash is given, the number of occurrences is added to each value in the hash, and the hash is returned. The value corresponding to each element must be an integer.

Returns an array containing the items in self:

(0..4).to_a # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

Enumerable#entries is an alias for Enumerable#to_a.

When self consists of 2-element arrays, returns a hash each of whose entries is the key-value pair formed from one of those arrays:

[[:foo, 0], [:bar, 1], [:baz, 2]].to_h # => {:foo=>0, :bar=>1, :baz=>2}

When a block is given, the block is called with each element of self; the block should return a 2-element array which becomes a key-value pair in the returned hash:

(0..3).to_h {|i| [i, i ** 2]} # => {0=>0, 1=>1, 2=>4, 3=>9}

Raises an exception if an element of self is not a 2-element array, and a block is not passed.

Makes a set from the enumerable object with given arguments. Needs to require "set" to use this method.

Returns a new array by removing duplicate values in self.

See also Array#uniq.

Takes one element from enum and merges corresponding elements from each args. This generates a sequence of n-element arrays, where n is one more than the count of arguments. The length of the resulting sequence will be enum#size. If the size of any argument is less than enum#size, nil values are supplied. If a block is given, it is invoked for each output array, otherwise an array of arrays is returned.

a = [ 4, 5, 6 ]
b = [ 7, 8, 9 ]

a.zip(b)                 #=> [[4, 7], [5, 8], [6, 9]]
[1, 2, 3].zip(a, b)      #=> [[1, 4, 7], [2, 5, 8], [3, 6, 9]]
[1, 2].zip(a, b)         #=> [[1, 4, 7], [2, 5, 8]]
a.zip([1, 2], [8])       #=> [[4, 1, 8], [5, 2, nil], [6, nil, nil]]

c = []
a.zip(b) { |x, y| c << x + y }  #=> nil
c                               #=> [11, 13, 15]