Module

URI is a module providing classes to handle Uniform Resource Identifiers (RFC2396).

Features

  • Uniform way of handling URIs.

  • Flexibility to introduce custom URI schemes.

  • Flexibility to have an alternate URI::Parser (or just different patterns and regexp's).

Basic example

require 'uri'

uri = URI("http://foo.com/posts?id=30&limit=5#time=1305298413")
#=> #<URI::HTTP http://foo.com/posts?id=30&limit=5#time=1305298413>

uri.scheme    #=> "http"
uri.host      #=> "foo.com"
uri.path      #=> "/posts"
uri.query     #=> "id=30&limit=5"
uri.fragment  #=> "time=1305298413"

uri.to_s      #=> "http://foo.com/posts?id=30&limit=5#time=1305298413"

Adding custom URIs

module URI
  class RSYNC < Generic
    DEFAULT_PORT = 873
  end
  @@schemes['RSYNC'] = RSYNC
end
#=> URI::RSYNC

URI.scheme_list
#=> {"FILE"=>URI::File, "FTP"=>URI::FTP, "HTTP"=>URI::HTTP,
#    "HTTPS"=>URI::HTTPS, "LDAP"=>URI::LDAP, "LDAPS"=>URI::LDAPS,
#    "MAILTO"=>URI::MailTo, "RSYNC"=>URI::RSYNC}

uri = URI("rsync://rsync.foo.com")
#=> #<URI::RSYNC rsync://rsync.foo.com>

RFC References

A good place to view an RFC spec is www.ietf.org/rfc.html.

Here is a list of all related RFC's:

Copyright Info

Author

Akira Yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org>

Documentation

Akira Yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org> Dmitry V. Sabanin <sdmitry@lrn.ru> Vincent Batts <vbatts@hashbangbash.com>

License

Copyright © 2001 akira yamada <akira@ruby-lang.org> You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same term as Ruby.

Revision

$Id: uri.rb 63228 2018-04-21 20:04:05Z stomar $


Decodes URL-encoded form data from given str.

This decodes application/x-www-form-urlencoded data and returns an array of key-value arrays.

This refers url.spec.whatwg.org/#concept-urlencoded-parser, so this supports only &-separator, and doesn't support ;-separator.

ary = URI.decode_www_form("a=1&a=2&b=3")
ary                   #=> [['a', '1'], ['a', '2'], ['b', '3']]
ary.assoc('a').last   #=> '1'
ary.assoc('b').last   #=> '3'
ary.rassoc('a').last  #=> '2'
Hash[ary]             #=> {"a"=>"2", "b"=>"3"}

See URI.decode_www_form_component, URI.encode_www_form.

Decodes given str of URL-encoded form data.

This decodes + to SP.

See URI.encode_www_form_component, URI.decode_www_form.

Generates URL-encoded form data from given enum.

This generates application/x-www-form-urlencoded data defined in HTML5 from given an Enumerable object.

This internally uses URI.encode_www_form_component(str).

This method doesn't convert the encoding of given items, so convert them before calling this method if you want to send data as other than original encoding or mixed encoding data. (Strings which are encoded in an HTML5 ASCII incompatible encoding are converted to UTF-8.)

This method doesn't handle files. When you send a file, use multipart/form-data.

This refers url.spec.whatwg.org/#concept-urlencoded-serializer

URI.encode_www_form([["q", "ruby"], ["lang", "en"]])
#=> "q=ruby&lang=en"
URI.encode_www_form("q" => "ruby", "lang" => "en")
#=> "q=ruby&lang=en"
URI.encode_www_form("q" => ["ruby", "perl"], "lang" => "en")
#=> "q=ruby&q=perl&lang=en"
URI.encode_www_form([["q", "ruby"], ["q", "perl"], ["lang", "en"]])
#=> "q=ruby&q=perl&lang=en"

See URI.encode_www_form_component, URI.decode_www_form.

Encodes given str to URL-encoded form data.

This method doesn't convert *, -, ., 0-9, A-Z, _, a-z, but does convert SP (ASCII space) to + and converts others to %XX.

If enc is given, convert str to the encoding before percent encoding.

This is an implementation of www.w3.org/TR/2013/CR-html5-20130806/forms.html#url-encoded-form-data.

See URI.decode_www_form_component, URI.encode_www_form.

Synopsis

URI::extract(str[, schemes][,&blk])

Args

str

String to extract URIs from.

schemes

Limit URI matching to specific schemes.

Description

Extracts URIs from a string. If block given, iterates through all matched URIs. Returns nil if block given or array with matches.

Usage

require "uri"

URI.extract("text here http://foo.example.org/bla and here mailto:test@example.com and here also.")
# => ["http://foo.example.com/bla", "mailto:test@example.com"]

Synopsis

URI::join(str[, str, ...])

Args

str

String(s) to work with, will be converted to RFC3986 URIs before merging.

Description

Joins URIs.

Usage

require 'uri'

URI.join("http://example.com/","main.rbx")
# => #<URI::HTTP http://example.com/main.rbx>

URI.join('http://example.com', 'foo')
# => #<URI::HTTP http://example.com/foo>

URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo', '/bar')
# => #<URI::HTTP http://example.com/bar>

URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo', 'bar')
# => #<URI::HTTP http://example.com/bar>

URI.join('http://example.com', '/foo/', 'bar')
# => #<URI::HTTP http://example.com/foo/bar>

Synopsis

URI::parse(uri_str)

Args

uri_str

String with URI.

Description

Creates one of the URI's subclasses instance from the string.

Raises

URI::InvalidURIError

Raised if URI given is not a correct one.

Usage

require 'uri'

uri = URI.parse("http://www.ruby-lang.org/")
# => #<URI::HTTP http://www.ruby-lang.org/>
uri.scheme
# => "http"
uri.host
# => "www.ruby-lang.org"

It's recommended to first ::escape the provided uri_str if there are any invalid URI characters.

Synopsis

URI::regexp([match_schemes])

Args

match_schemes

Array of schemes. If given, resulting regexp matches to URIs whose scheme is one of the match_schemes.

Description

Returns a Regexp object which matches to URI-like strings. The Regexp object returned by this method includes arbitrary number of capture group (parentheses). Never rely on it's number.

Usage

require 'uri'

# extract first URI from html_string
html_string.slice(URI.regexp)

# remove ftp URIs
html_string.sub(URI.regexp(['ftp']), '')

# You should not rely on the number of parentheses
html_string.scan(URI.regexp) do |*matches|
  p $&
end

Returns a Hash of the defined schemes.

Synopsis

URI::split(uri)

Args

uri

String with URI.

Description

Splits the string on following parts and returns array with result:

  • Scheme

  • Userinfo

  • Host

  • Port

  • Registry

  • Path

  • Opaque

  • Query

  • Fragment

Usage

require 'uri'

URI.split("http://www.ruby-lang.org/")
# => ["http", nil, "www.ruby-lang.org", nil, nil, "/", nil, nil, nil]