Class

An Array is an ordered, integer-indexed collection of objects, called elements. Any object may be an Array element.

Array Indexes

Array indexing starts at 0, as in C or Java.

A positive index is an offset from the first element:

  • Index 0 indicates the first element.

  • Index 1 indicates the second element.

A negative index is an offset, backwards, from the end of the array:

  • Index -1 indicates the last element.

  • Index -2 indicates the next-to-last element.

A non-negative index is in range if it is smaller than the size of the array. For a 3-element array:

  • Indexes 0 through 2 are in range.

  • Index 3 is out of range.

A negative index is in range if its absolute value is not larger than the size of the array. For a 3-element array:

  • Indexes -1 through -3 are in range.

  • Index -4 is out of range.

Creating Arrays

A new array can be created by using the literal constructor []. Arrays can contain different types of objects. For example, the array below contains an Integer, a String and a Float:

ary = [1, "two", 3.0] #=> [1, "two", 3.0]

An array can also be created by explicitly calling Array.new with zero, one (the initial size of the Array) or two arguments (the initial size and a default object).

ary = Array.new    #=> []
Array.new(3)       #=> [nil, nil, nil]
Array.new(3, true) #=> [true, true, true]

Note that the second argument populates the array with references to the same object. Therefore, it is only recommended in cases when you need to instantiate arrays with natively immutable objects such as Symbols, numbers, true or false.

To create an array with separate objects a block can be passed instead. This method is safe to use with mutable objects such as hashes, strings or other arrays:

Array.new(4) {Hash.new}    #=> [{}, {}, {}, {}]
Array.new(4) {|i| i.to_s } #=> ["0", "1", "2", "3"]

This is also a quick way to build up multi-dimensional arrays:

empty_table = Array.new(3) {Array.new(3)}
#=> [[nil, nil, nil], [nil, nil, nil], [nil, nil, nil]]

An array can also be created by using the Array() method, provided by Kernel, which tries to call to_ary, then to_a on its argument.

Array({:a => "a", :b => "b"}) #=> [[:a, "a"], [:b, "b"]]

Example Usage

In addition to the methods it mixes in through the Enumerable module, the Array class has proprietary methods for accessing, searching and otherwise manipulating arrays.

Some of the more common ones are illustrated below.

Accessing Elements

Elements in an array can be retrieved using the Array#[] method. It can take a single integer argument (a numeric index), a pair of arguments (start and length) or a range. Negative indices start counting from the end, with -1 being the last element.

arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
arr[2]    #=> 3
arr[100]  #=> nil
arr[-3]   #=> 4
arr[2, 3] #=> [3, 4, 5]
arr[1..4] #=> [2, 3, 4, 5]
arr[1..-3] #=> [2, 3, 4]

Another way to access a particular array element is by using the at method

arr.at(0) #=> 1

The slice method works in an identical manner to Array#[].

To raise an error for indices outside of the array bounds or else to provide a default value when that happens, you can use fetch.

arr = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f']
arr.fetch(100) #=> IndexError: index 100 outside of array bounds: -6...6
arr.fetch(100, "oops") #=> "oops"

The special methods first and last will return the first and last elements of an array, respectively.

arr.first #=> 1
arr.last  #=> 6

To return the first n elements of an array, use take

arr.take(3) #=> [1, 2, 3]

drop does the opposite of take, by returning the elements after n elements have been dropped:

arr.drop(3) #=> [4, 5, 6]

Obtaining Information about an

Arrays keep track of their own length at all times. To query an array about the number of elements it contains, use length, count or size.

browsers = ['Chrome', 'Firefox', 'Safari', 'Opera', 'IE']
browsers.length #=> 5
browsers.count #=> 5

To check whether an array contains any elements at all

browsers.empty? #=> false

To check whether a particular item is included in the array

browsers.include?('Konqueror') #=> false

Adding Items to Arrays

Items can be added to the end of an array by using either push or <<

arr = [1, 2, 3, 4]
arr.push(5) #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
arr << 6    #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

unshift will add a new item to the beginning of an array.

arr.unshift(0) #=> [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

With insert you can add a new element to an array at any position.

arr.insert(3, 'apple')  #=> [0, 1, 2, 'apple', 3, 4, 5, 6]

Using the insert method, you can also insert multiple values at once:

arr.insert(3, 'orange', 'pear', 'grapefruit')
#=> [0, 1, 2, "orange", "pear", "grapefruit", "apple", 3, 4, 5, 6]

Removing Items from an

The method pop removes the last element in an array and returns it:

arr =  [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
arr.pop #=> 6
arr #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

To retrieve and at the same time remove the first item, use shift:

arr.shift #=> 1
arr #=> [2, 3, 4, 5]

To delete an element at a particular index:

arr.delete_at(2) #=> 4
arr #=> [2, 3, 5]

To delete a particular element anywhere in an array, use delete:

arr = [1, 2, 2, 3]
arr.delete(2) #=> 2
arr #=> [1,3]

A useful method if you need to remove nil values from an array is compact:

arr = ['foo', 0, nil, 'bar', 7, 'baz', nil]
arr.compact  #=> ['foo', 0, 'bar', 7, 'baz']
arr          #=> ['foo', 0, nil, 'bar', 7, 'baz', nil]
arr.compact! #=> ['foo', 0, 'bar', 7, 'baz']
arr          #=> ['foo', 0, 'bar', 7, 'baz']

Another common need is to remove duplicate elements from an array.

It has the non-destructive uniq, and destructive method uniq!

arr = [2, 5, 6, 556, 6, 6, 8, 9, 0, 123, 556]
arr.uniq #=> [2, 5, 6, 556, 8, 9, 0, 123]

Iterating over Arrays

Like all classes that include the Enumerable module, Array has an each method, which defines what elements should be iterated over and how. In case of Array's each, all elements in the Array instance are yielded to the supplied block in sequence.

Note that this operation leaves the array unchanged.

arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
arr.each {|a| print a -= 10, " "}
# prints: -9 -8 -7 -6 -5
#=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Another sometimes useful iterator is reverse_each which will iterate over the elements in the array in reverse order.

words = %w[first second third fourth fifth sixth]
str = ""
words.reverse_each {|word| str += "#{word} "}
p str #=> "sixth fifth fourth third second first "

The map method can be used to create a new array based on the original array, but with the values modified by the supplied block:

arr.map {|a| 2*a}     #=> [2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
arr                   #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
arr.map! {|a| a**2}   #=> [1, 4, 9, 16, 25]
arr                   #=> [1, 4, 9, 16, 25]

Selecting Items from an

Elements can be selected from an array according to criteria defined in a block. The selection can happen in a destructive or a non-destructive manner. While the destructive operations will modify the array they were called on, the non-destructive methods usually return a new array with the selected elements, but leave the original array unchanged.

Non-destructive Selection

arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
arr.select {|a| a > 3}       #=> [4, 5, 6]
arr.reject {|a| a < 3}       #=> [3, 4, 5, 6]
arr.drop_while {|a| a < 4}   #=> [4, 5, 6]
arr                          #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

Destructive Selection

select! and reject! are the corresponding destructive methods to select and reject

Similar to select vs. reject, delete_if and keep_if have the exact opposite result when supplied with the same block:

arr.delete_if {|a| a < 4}   #=> [4, 5, 6]
arr                         #=> [4, 5, 6]

arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
arr.keep_if {|a| a < 4}   #=> [1, 2, 3]
arr                       #=> [1, 2, 3]

for pack.c

Class Methods


Returns a new array populated with the given objects.

Array.[]( 1, 'a', /^A/)  # => [1, "a", /^A/]
Array[ 1, 'a', /^A/ ]    # => [1, "a", /^A/]
[ 1, 'a', /^A/ ]         # => [1, "a", /^A/]

Returns a new Array.

With no block and no arguments, returns a new empty Array object.

With no block and a single Array argument array, returns a new Array formed from array:

a = Array.new([:foo, 'bar', 2])
a.class # => Array
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

With no block and a single Integer argument size, returns a new Array of the given size whose elements are all nil:

a = Array.new(3)
a # => [nil, nil, nil]

With no block and arguments size and default_value, returns an Array of the given size; each element is that same default_value:

a = Array.new(3, 'x')
a # => ['x', 'x', 'x']

With a block and argument size, returns an Array of the given size; the block is called with each successive integer index; the element for that index is the return value from the block:

a = Array.new(3) {|index| "Element #{index}" }
a # => ["Element 0", "Element 1", "Element 2"]

Raises ArgumentError if size is negative.

With a block and no argument, or a single argument 0, ignores the block and returns a new empty Array.

If object is an Array object, returns object.

Otherwise if object responds to :to_ary, calls object.to_ary and returns the result.

Returns nil if object does not respond to :to_ary

Raises an exception unless object.to_ary returns an Array object.

Instance Methods


Returns a new Array containing each element found in both array and Array other_array; duplicates are omitted; items are compared using eql?:

[0, 1, 2, 3] & [1, 2] # => [1, 2]
[0, 1, 0, 1] & [0, 1] # => [0, 1]

Preserves order from array:

[0, 1, 2] & [3, 2, 1, 0] # => [0, 1, 2]

Related: Array#intersection.

When non-negative argument Integer n is given, returns a new Array built by concatenating the n copies of self:

a = ['x', 'y']
a * 3 # => ["x", "y", "x", "y", "x", "y"]

When String argument string_separator is given, equivalent to array.join(string_separator):

[0, [0, 1], {foo: 0}] * ', ' # => "0, 0, 1, {:foo=>0}"

Returns a new Array containing all elements of array followed by all elements of other_array:

a = [0, 1] + [2, 3]
a # => [0, 1, 2, 3]

Related: concat.

Returns a new Array containing only those elements from array that are not found in Array other_array; items are compared using eql?; the order from array is preserved:

[0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1] - [1] # => [0, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 2, 3] - [3, 0] # => [1, 2]
[0, 1, 2] - [4] # => [0, 1, 2]

Related: Array#difference.

Appends object to self; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a << :baz # => [:foo, "bar", 2, :baz]

Appends object as one element, even if it is another Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a << [3, 4]
a1 # => [:foo, "bar", 2, [3, 4]]

Returns -1, 0, or 1 as self is less than, equal to, or greater than other_array. For each index i in self, evaluates result = self[i] <=> other_array[i].

Returns -1 if any result is -1:

[0, 1, 2] <=> [0, 1, 3] # => -1

Returns 1 if any result is 1:

[0, 1, 2] <=> [0, 1, 1] # => 1

When all results are zero:

  • Returns -1 if array is smaller than other_array:

    [0, 1, 2] <=> [0, 1, 2, 3] # => -1
    
  • Returns 1 if array is larger than other_array:

    [0, 1, 2] <=> [0, 1] # => 1
    
  • Returns 0 if array and other_array are the same size:

    [0, 1, 2] <=> [0, 1, 2] # => 0
    

Returns true if both array.size == other_array.size and for each index i in array, array[i] == other_array[i]:

a0 = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = [:foo, 'bar', 2.0]
a1 == a0 # => true
[] == [] # => true

Otherwise, returns false.

This method is different from method Array#eql?, which compares elements using Object#eql?.

Returns elements from self; does not modify self.

When a single Integer argument index is given, returns the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0] # => :foo
a[2] # => 2
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If index is negative, counts relative to the end of self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-1] # => 2
a[-2] # => "bar"

If index is out of range, returns nil.

When two Integer arguments start and length are given, returns a new Array of size length containing successive elements beginning at offset start:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0, 2] # => [:foo, "bar"]
a[1, 2] # => ["bar", 2]

If start + length is greater than self.length, returns all elements from offset start to the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0, 4] # => [:foo, "bar", 2]
a[1, 3] # => ["bar", 2]
a[2, 2] # => [2]

If start == self.size and length >= 0, returns a new empty Array.

If length is negative, returns nil.

When a single Range argument range is given, treats range.min as start above and range.size as length above:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0..1] # => [:foo, "bar"]
a[1..2] # => ["bar", 2]

Special case: If range.start == a.size, returns a new empty Array.

If range.end is negative, calculates the end index from the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0..-1] # => [:foo, "bar", 2]
a[0..-2] # => [:foo, "bar"]
a[0..-3] # => [:foo]

If range.start is negative, calculates the start index from the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-1..2] # => [2]
a[-2..2] # => ["bar", 2]
a[-3..2] # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If range.start is larger than the array size, returns nil.

Array#slice is an alias for Array#[].

Assigns elements in self; returns the given object.

When Integer argument index is given, assigns object to an element in self.

If index is non-negative, assigns object the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => ["foo", "bar", 2]

If index is greater than self.length, extends the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[7] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2, nil, nil, nil, nil, "foo"]

If index is negative, counts backwards from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-1] = 'two' # => "two"
a # => [:foo, "bar", "two"]

When Integer arguments start and length are given and object is not an Array, removes length - 1 elements beginning at offset start, and assigns object at offset start:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0, 2] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => ["foo", 2]

If start is negative, counts backwards from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-2, 2] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo"]

If start is non-negative and outside the array ( >= self.size), extends the array with nil, assigns object at offset start, and ignores length:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[6, 50] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2, nil, nil, nil, "foo"]

If length is zero, shifts elements at and following offset start and assigns object at offset start:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1, 0] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo", "bar", 2]

If length is too large for the existing array, does not extend the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1, 5] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo"]

When Range argument range is given and object is an Array, removes length - 1 elements beginning at offset start, and assigns object at offset start:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0..1] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => ["foo", 2]

if range.begin is negative, counts backwards from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-2..2] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo"]

If the array length is less than range.begin, assigns object at offset range.begin, and ignores length:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[6..50] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2, nil, nil, nil, "foo"]

If range.end is zero, shifts elements at and following offset start and assigns object at offset start:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1..0] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo", "bar", 2]

If range.end is negative, assigns object at offset start, retains range.end.abs -1 elements past that, and removes those beyond:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1..-1] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo"]
a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1..-2] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo", 2]
a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1..-3] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo", "bar", 2]
a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]

If range.end is too large for the existing array, replaces array elements, but does not extend the array with nil values:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[1..5] = 'foo' # => "foo"
a # => [:foo, "foo"]

Calculates the set of unambiguous abbreviations for the strings in self.

require 'abbrev'
%w{ car cone }.abbrev
#=> {"car"=>"car", "ca"=>"car", "cone"=>"cone", "con"=>"cone", "co"=>"cone"}

The optional pattern parameter is a pattern or a string. Only input strings that match the pattern or start with the string are included in the output hash.

%w{ fast boat day }.abbrev(/^.a/)
#=> {"fast"=>"fast", "fas"=>"fast", "fa"=>"fast", "day"=>"day", "da"=>"day"}

Abbrev.abbrev(%w{car box cone}, "ca")
#=> {"car"=>"car", "ca"=>"car"}

See also Abbrev.abbrev

Returns true if all elements of self meet a given criterion.

With no block given and no argument, returns true if self contains only truthy elements, false otherwise:

[0, 1, :foo].all? # => true
[0, nil, 2].all? # => false
[].all? # => true

With a block given and no argument, calls the block with each element in self; returns true if the block returns only truthy values, false otherwise:

[0, 1, 2].all? { |element| element < 3 } # => true
[0, 1, 2].all? { |element| element < 2 } # => false

If argument obj is given, returns true if obj.=== every element, false otherwise:

['food', 'fool', 'foot'].all?(/foo/) # => true
['food', 'drink'].all?(/bar/) # => false
[].all?(/foo/) # => true
[0, 0, 0].all?(0) # => true
[0, 1, 2].all?(1) # => false

Related: Enumerable#all?

Returns true if any element of self meets a given criterion.

With no block given and no argument, returns true if self has any truthy element, false otherwise:

[nil, 0, false].any? # => true
[nil, false].any? # => false
[].any? # => false

With a block given and no argument, calls the block with each element in self; returns true if the block returns any truthy value, false otherwise:

[0, 1, 2].any? {|element| element > 1 } # => true
[0, 1, 2].any? {|element| element > 2 } # => false

If argument obj is given, returns true if obj.=== any element, false otherwise:

['food', 'drink'].any?(/foo/) # => true
['food', 'drink'].any?(/bar/) # => false
[].any?(/foo/) # => false
[0, 1, 2].any?(1) # => true
[0, 1, 2].any?(3) # => false

Related: Enumerable#any?

Returns the first element in self that is an Array whose first element == obj:

a = [{foo: 0}, [2, 4], [4, 5, 6], [4, 5]]
a.assoc(4) # => [4, 5, 6]

Returns nil if no such element is found.

Related: rassoc.

Returns the element at Integer offset index; does not modify self.

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.at(0) # => :foo
a.at(2) # => 2

Returns an element from self selected by a binary search. self should be sorted, but this is not checked.

By using binary search, finds a value from this array which meets the given condition in O(log n) where n is the size of the array.

There are two search modes:

  • Find-minimum mode: the block should return true or false.

  • Find-any mode: the block should return a numeric value.

The block should not mix the modes by and sometimes returning true or false and sometimes returning a numeric value, but this is not checked.

Find-Minimum Mode

In find-minimum mode, the block always returns true or false. The further requirement (though not checked) is that there are no indexes i and j such that:

  • 0 <= i < j <= self.size.

  • The block returns true for self[i] and false for self[j].

In find-minimum mode, method bsearch returns the first element for which the block returns true.

Examples:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.bsearch {|x| x >= 4 } # => 4
a.bsearch {|x| x >= 6 } # => 7
a.bsearch {|x| x >= -1 } # => 0
a.bsearch {|x| x >= 100 } # => nil

Less formally: the block is such that all false-evaluating elements precede all true-evaluating elements.

These make sense as blocks in find-minimum mode:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.map {|x| x >= 4 } # => [false, true, true, true, true]
a.map {|x| x >= 6 } # => [false, false, true, true, true]
a.map {|x| x >= -1 } # => [true, true, true, true, true]
a.map {|x| x >= 100 } # => [false, false, false, false, false]

This would not make sense:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.map {|x| x == 7 } # => [false, false, true, false, false]

Find-Any Mode

In find-any mode, the block always returns a numeric value. The further requirement (though not checked) is that there are no indexes i and j such that:

  • 0 <= i < j <= self.size.

  • The block returns a negative value for self[i] and a positive value for self[j].

  • The block returns a negative value for self[i] and zero self[j].

  • The block returns zero for self[i] and a positive value for self[j].

In find-any mode, method bsearch returns some element for which the block returns zero, or nil if no such element is found.

Examples:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.bsearch {|element| 7 <=> element } # => 7
a.bsearch {|element| -1 <=> element } # => nil
a.bsearch {|element| 5 <=> element } # => nil
a.bsearch {|element| 15 <=> element } # => nil

Less formally: the block is such that:

  • All positive-evaluating elements precede all zero-evaluating elements.

  • All positive-evaluating elements precede all negative-evaluating elements.

  • All zero-evaluating elements precede all negative-evaluating elements.

These make sense as blocks in find-any mode:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.map {|element| 7 <=> element } # => [1, 1, 0, -1, -1]
a.map {|element| -1 <=> element } # => [-1, -1, -1, -1, -1]
a.map {|element| 5 <=> element } # => [1, 1, -1, -1, -1]
a.map {|element| 15 <=> element } # => [1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

This would not make sense:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.map {|element| element <=> 7 } # => [-1, -1, 0, 1, 1]

Returns an enumerator if no block given:

a = [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]
a.bsearch # => #<Enumerator: [0, 4, 7, 10, 12]:bsearch>

Searches self as described at method bsearch, but returns the index of the found element instead of the element itself.

Removes all elements from self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.clear # => []

Calls the block, if given, with each element of self; returns a new Array whose elements are the return values from the block:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.map {|element| element.class }
a1 # => [Symbol, String, Integer]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.map
a1 # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:map>

Array#collect is an alias for Array#map.

Calls the block, if given, with each element; replaces the element with the block's return value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.map! { |element| element.class } # => [Symbol, String, Integer]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.map!
a1 # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:map!>

Array#collect! is an alias for Array#map!.

Calls the block, if given, with combinations of elements of self; returns self. The order of combinations is indeterminate.

When a block and an in-range positive Integer argument n (0 < n <= self.size) are given, calls the block with all n-tuple combinations of self.

Example:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.combination(2) {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[0, 1]
[0, 2]
[1, 2]

Another example:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.combination(3) {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[0, 1, 2]

When n is zero, calls the block once with a new empty Array:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a1 = a.combination(0) {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[]

When n is out of range (negative or larger than self.size), does not call the block:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.combination(-1) {|combination| fail 'Cannot happen' }
a.combination(4) {|combination| fail 'Cannot happen' }

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.combination(2) # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1, 2]:combination(2)>

Returns a new Array containing all non-nil elements from self:

a = [nil, 0, nil, 1, nil, 2, nil]
a.compact # => [0, 1, 2]

Removes all nil elements from self.

Returns self if any elements removed, otherwise nil.

Adds to array all elements from each Array in other_arrays; returns self:

a = [0, 1]
a.concat([2, 3], [4, 5]) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Returns a count of specified elements.

With no argument and no block, returns the count of all elements:

[0, 1, 2].count # => 3
[].count # => 0

With argument obj, returns the count of elements eql? to obj:

[0, 1, 2, 0].count(0) # => 2
[0, 1, 2].count(3) # => 0

With no argument and a block given, calls the block with each element; returns the count of elements for which the block returns a truthy value:

[0, 1, 2, 3].count {|element| element > 1} # => 2

With argument obj and a block given, issues a warning, ignores the block, and returns the count of elements eql? to obj:

When called with positive Integer argument count and a block, calls the block with each element, then does so again, until it has done so count times; returns nil:

output = []
[0, 1].cycle(2) {|element| output.push(element) } # => nil
output # => [0, 1, 0, 1]

If count is zero or negative, does not call the block:

[0, 1].cycle(0) {|element| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => nil
[0, 1].cycle(-1) {|element| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => nil

When a block is given, and argument is omitted or nil, cycles forever:

# Prints 0 and 1 forever.
[0, 1].cycle {|element| puts element }
[0, 1].cycle(nil) {|element| puts element }

When no block is given, returns a new Enumerator:

[0, 1].cycle(2) # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1]:cycle(2)>
[0, 1].cycle # => # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1]:cycle>
[0, 1].cycle.first(5) # => [0, 1, 0, 1, 0]
No documentation available

Removes zero or more elements from self; returns self.

When no block is given, removes from self each element ele such that ele == obj; returns the last deleted element:

s1 = 'bar'; s2 = 'bar'
a = [:foo, s1, 2, s2]
a.delete('bar') # => "bar"
a # => [:foo, 2]

Returns nil if no elements removed.

When a block is given, removes from self each element ele such that ele == obj.

If any such elements are found, ignores the block and returns the last deleted element:

s1 = 'bar'; s2 = 'bar'
a = [:foo, s1, 2, s2]
deleted_obj = a.delete('bar') {|obj| fail 'Cannot happen' }
a # => [:foo, 2]

If no such elements are found, returns the block's return value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.delete(:nosuch) {|obj| "#{obj} not found" } # => "nosuch not found"

Deletes an element from self, per the given Integer index.

When index is non-negative, deletes the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.delete_at(1) # => "bar"
a # => [:foo, 2]

If index is too large, returns nil.

When index is negative, counts backward from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.delete_at(-2) # => "bar"
a # => [:foo, 2]

If index is too small (far from zero), returns nil.

Removes each element in self for which the block returns a truthy value; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bat']
a.delete_if {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') } # => [:foo, 2]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.delete_if # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:delete_if>

Returns a new Array containing only those elements from self that are not found in any of the Arrays other_arrays; items are compared using eql?; order from self is preserved:

[0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1].difference([1]) # => [0, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 2, 3].difference([3, 0], [1, 3]) # => [2]
[0, 1, 2].difference([4]) # => [0, 1, 2]

Returns a copy of self if no arguments given.

Related: Array#-.

Finds and returns the object in nested objects that is specified by index and identifiers. The nested objects may be instances of various classes. See Dig Methods.

Examples:

a = [:foo, [:bar, :baz, [:bat, :bam]]]
a.dig(1) # => [:bar, :baz, [:bat, :bam]]
a.dig(1, 2) # => [:bat, :bam]
a.dig(1, 2, 0) # => :bat
a.dig(1, 2, 3) # => nil

Returns a new Array containing all but the first n element of self, where n is a non-negative Integer; does not modify self.

Examples:

a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.drop(0) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.drop(1) # => [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.drop(2) # => [2, 3, 4, 5]

Returns a new Array containing zero or more trailing elements of self; does not modify self.

With a block given, calls the block with each successive element of self; stops if the block returns false or nil; returns a new Array omitting those elements for which the block returned a truthy value:

a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.drop_while {|element| element < 3 } # => [3, 4, 5]

With no block given, returns a new Enumerator:

[0, 1].drop_while # => # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1]:drop_while>

Iterates over array elements.

When a block given, passes each successive array element to the block; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.each {|element|  puts "#{element.class} #{element}" }

Output:

Symbol foo
String bar
Integer 2

Allows the array to be modified during iteration:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.each {|element| puts element; a.clear if element.to_s.start_with?('b') }

Output:

foo
bar

When no block given, returns a new Enumerator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
e = a.each
e # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:each>
a1 = e.each {|element|  puts "#{element.class} #{element}" }

Output:

Symbol foo
String bar
Integer 2

Related: each_index, reverse_each.

Iterates over array indexes.

When a block given, passes each successive array index to the block; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.each_index {|index|  puts "#{index} #{a[index]}" }

Output:

0 foo
1 bar
2 2

Allows the array to be modified during iteration:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.each_index {|index| puts index; a.clear if index > 0 }

Output:

0
1

When no block given, returns a new Enumerator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
e = a.each_index
e # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:each_index>
a1 = e.each {|index|  puts "#{index} #{a[index]}"}

Output:

0 foo
1 bar
2 2

Related: each, reverse_each.

Returns true if the count of elements in self is zero, false otherwise.

Returns true if self and other_array are the same size, and if, for each index i in self, self[i].eql? other_array[i]:

a0 = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1.eql?(a0) # => true

Otherwise, returns false.

This method is different from method Array#==, which compares using method Object#==.

Returns the element at offset index.

With the single Integer argument index, returns the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.fetch(1) # => "bar"

If index is negative, counts from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.fetch(-1) # => 2
a.fetch(-2) # => "bar"

With arguments index and default_value, returns the element at offset index if index is in range, otherwise returns default_value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.fetch(1, nil) # => "bar"

With argument index and a block, returns the element at offset index if index is in range (and the block is not called); otherwise calls the block with index and returns its return value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.fetch(1) {|index| raise 'Cannot happen' } # => "bar"
a.fetch(50) {|index| "Value for #{index}" } # => "Value for 50"

Replaces specified elements in self with specified objects; returns self.

With argument obj and no block given, replaces all elements with that one object:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
a.fill(:X) # => [:X, :X, :X, :X]

With arguments obj and Integer start, and no block given, replaces elements based on the given start.

If start is in range (0 <= start < array.size), replaces all elements from offset start through the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 2) # => ["a", "b", :X, :X]

If start is too large (start >= array.size), does nothing:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 4) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 5) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

If start is negative, counts from the end (starting index is start + array.size):

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, -2) # => ["a", "b", :X, :X]

If start is too small (less than and far from zero), replaces all elements:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, -6) # => [:X, :X, :X, :X]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, -50) # => [:X, :X, :X, :X]

With arguments obj, Integer start, and Integer length, and no block given, replaces elements based on the given start and length.

If start is in range, replaces length elements beginning at offset start:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 1, 1) # => ["a", :X, "c", "d"]

If start is negative, counts from the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, -2, 1) # => ["a", "b", :X, "d"]

If start is large (start >= array.size), extends self with nil:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 5, 0) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", nil]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 5, 2) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", nil, :X, :X]

If length is zero or negative, replaces no elements:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, 1, 0) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
a.fill(:X, 1, -1) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

With arguments obj and Range range, and no block given, replaces elements based on the given range.

If the range is positive and ascending (0 < range.begin <= range.end), replaces elements from range.begin to range.end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, (1..1)) # => ["a", :X, "c", "d"]

If range.first is negative, replaces no elements:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, (-1..1)) # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

If range.last is negative, counts from the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, (0..-2)) # => [:X, :X, :X, "d"]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, (1..-2)) # => ["a", :X, :X, "d"]

If range.last and range.last are both negative, both count from the end of the array:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, (-1..-1)) # => ["a", "b", "c", :X]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(:X, (-2..-2)) # => ["a", "b", :X, "d"]

With no arguments and a block given, calls the block with each index; replaces the corresponding element with the block's return value:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["new_0", "new_1", "new_2", "new_3"]

With argument start and a block given, calls the block with each index from offset start to the end; replaces the corresponding element with the block's return value:

If start is in range (0 <= start < array.size), replaces from offset start to the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(1) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "new_1", "new_2", "new_3"]

If start is too large(start >= array.size), does nothing:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(4) { |index| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(4) { |index| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

If start is negative, counts from the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-2) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "new_2", "new_3"]

If start is too small (start <= -array.size, replaces all elements:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-6) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["new_0", "new_1", "new_2", "new_3"]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-50) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["new_0", "new_1", "new_2", "new_3"]

With arguments start and length, and a block given, calls the block for each index specified by start length; replaces the corresponding element with the block's return value.

If start is in range, replaces length elements beginning at offset start:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(1, 1) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "new_1", "c", "d"]

If start is negative, counts from the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-2, 1) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "new_2", "d"]

If start is large (start >= array.size), extends self with nil:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(5, 0) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", nil]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(5, 2) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", nil, "new_5", "new_6"]

If length is zero or less, replaces no elements:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(1, 0) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]
a.fill(1, -1) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

With arguments obj and range, and a block given, calls the block with each index in the given range; replaces the corresponding element with the block's return value.

If the range is positive and ascending (range 0 < range.begin <= range.end, replaces elements from range.begin to range.end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(1..1) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "new_1", "c", "d"]

If range.first is negative, does nothing:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-1..1) { |index| fail 'Cannot happen' } # => ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

If range.last is negative, counts from the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(0..-2) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["new_0", "new_1", "new_2", "d"]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(1..-2) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "new_1", "new_2", "d"]

If range.first and range.last are both negative, both count from the end:

a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-1..-1) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "c", "new_3"]
a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
a.fill(-2..-2) { |index| "new_#{index}" } # => ["a", "b", "new_2", "d"]

Calls the block, if given, with each element of self; returns a new Array containing those elements of self for which the block returns a truthy value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a1 = a.select {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') }
a1 # => ["bar", :bam]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.select # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2, :bam]:select>

Array#filter is an alias for Array#select.

Calls the block, if given with each element of self; removes from self those elements for which the block returns false or nil.

Returns self if any elements were removed:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.select! {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') } # => ["bar", :bam]

Returns nil if no elements were removed.

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.select! # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2, :bam]:select!>

Array#filter! is an alias for Array#select!.

Returns the index of a specified element.

When argument object is given but no block, returns the index of the first element element for which object == element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.index('bar') # => 1

Returns nil if no such element found.

When both argument object and a block are given, calls the block with each successive element; returns the index of the first element for which the block returns a truthy value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.index {|element| element == 'bar' } # => 1

Returns nil if the block never returns a truthy value.

When neither an argument nor a block is given, returns a new Enumerator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
e = a.index
e # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:index>
e.each {|element| element == 'bar' } # => 1

Array#find_index is an alias for Array#index.

Related: rindex.

Returns elements from self; does not modify self.

When no argument is given, returns the first element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.first # => :foo
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If self is empty, returns nil.

When non-negative Integer argument n is given, returns the first n elements in a new Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.first(2) # => [:foo, "bar"]

If n >= array.size, returns all elements:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.first(50) # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If n == 0 returns an new empty Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.first(0) # []

Related: last.

Returns a new Array that is a recursive flattening of self:

  • Each non-Array element is unchanged.

  • Each Array is replaced by its individual elements.

With non-negative Integer argument level, flattens recursively through level levels:

a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten(0) # => [0, [1, [2, 3], 4], 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten(1) # => [0, 1, [2, 3], 4, 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten(2) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten(3) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

With no argument, a nil argument, or with negative argument level, flattens all levels:

a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[0, 1, 2].flatten # => [0, 1, 2]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten(-1) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten(-2) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[0, 1, 2].flatten(-1) # => [0, 1, 2]

Replaces each nested Array in self with the elements from that Array; returns self if any changes, nil otherwise.

With non-negative Integer argument level, flattens recursively through level levels:

a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten!(1) # => [0, 1, [2, 3], 4, 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten!(2) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten!(3) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[0, 1, 2].flatten!(1) # => nil

With no argument, a nil argument, or with negative argument level, flattens all levels:

a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten! # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[0, 1, 2].flatten! # => nil
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten!(-1) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a = [ 0, [ 1, [2, 3], 4 ], 5 ]
a.flatten!(-2) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[0, 1, 2].flatten!(-1) # => nil

Returns the integer hash value for self.

Two arrays with the same content will have the same hash code (and will compare using eql?):

[0, 1, 2].hash == [0, 1, 2].hash # => true
[0, 1, 2].hash == [0, 1, 3].hash # => false

Returns true if for some index i in self, obj == self[i]; otherwise false:

[0, 1, 2].include?(2) # => true
[0, 1, 2].include?(3) # => false

Returns the index of a specified element.

When argument object is given but no block, returns the index of the first element element for which object == element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.index('bar') # => 1

Returns nil if no such element found.

When both argument object and a block are given, calls the block with each successive element; returns the index of the first element for which the block returns a truthy value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.index {|element| element == 'bar' } # => 1

Returns nil if the block never returns a truthy value.

When neither an argument nor a block is given, returns a new Enumerator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
e = a.index
e # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:index>
e.each {|element| element == 'bar' } # => 1

Array#find_index is an alias for Array#index.

Related: rindex.

Replaces the content of self with the content of other_array; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.replace(['foo', :bar, 3]) # => ["foo", :bar, 3]

Inserts given objects before or after the element at Integer index offset; returns self.

When index is non-negative, inserts all given objects before the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.insert(1, :bat, :bam) # => [:foo, :bat, :bam, "bar", 2]

Extends the array if index is beyond the array (index >= self.size):

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.insert(5, :bat, :bam)
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2, nil, nil, :bat, :bam]

Does nothing if no objects given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.insert(1)
a.insert(50)
a.insert(-50)
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

When index is negative, inserts all given objects after the element at offset index+self.size:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.insert(-2, :bat, :bam)
a # => [:foo, "bar", :bat, :bam, 2]

Returns the new String formed by calling method #inspect on each array element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.inspect # => "[:foo, \"bar\", 2]"

Array#to_s is an alias for Array#inspect.

Returns a new Array containing each element found both in self and in all of the given Arrays other_arrays; duplicates are omitted; items are compared using eql?:

[0, 1, 2, 3].intersection([0, 1, 2], [0, 1, 3]) # => [0, 1]
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3].intersection([0, 1, 2], [0, 1, 3]) # => [0, 1]

Preserves order from self:

[0, 1, 2].intersection([2, 1, 0]) # => [0, 1, 2]

Returns a copy of self if no arguments given.

Related: Array#&.

Returns the new String formed by joining the array elements after conversion. For each element element

  • Uses element.to_s if element is not a kind_of?(Array).

  • Uses recursive element.join(separator) if element is a kind_of?(Array).

With no argument, joins using the output field separator, $,:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
$, # => nil
a.join # => "foobar2"

With string argument separator, joins using that separator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.join("\n") # => "foo\nbar\n2"

Joins recursively for nested Arrays:

a = [:foo, [:bar, [:baz, :bat]]]
a.join # => "foobarbazbat"

Retains those elements for which the block returns a truthy value; deletes all other elements; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.keep_if {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') } # => ["bar", :bam]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.keep_if # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2, :bam]:keep_if>

Returns elements from self; self is not modified.

When no argument is given, returns the last element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.last # => 2
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If self is empty, returns nil.

When non-negative Innteger argument n is given, returns the last n elements in a new Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.last(2) # => ["bar", 2]

If n >= array.size, returns all elements:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.last(50) # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If n == 0, returns an new empty Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.last(0) # []

Related: first.

Returns the count of elements in self.

Calls the block, if given, with each element of self; returns a new Array whose elements are the return values from the block:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.map {|element| element.class }
a1 # => [Symbol, String, Integer]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.map
a1 # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:map>

Array#collect is an alias for Array#map.

Calls the block, if given, with each element; replaces the element with the block's return value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.map! { |element| element.class } # => [Symbol, String, Integer]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.map!
a1 # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:map!>

Array#collect! is an alias for Array#map!.

Returns one of the following:

  • The maximum-valued element from self.

  • A new Array of maximum-valued elements selected from self.

When no block is given, each element in self must respond to method <=> with an Integer.

With no argument and no block, returns the element in self having the maximum value per method <=>:

[0, 1, 2].max # => 2

With an argument Integer n and no block, returns a new Array with at most n elements, in descending order per method <=>:

[0, 1, 2, 3].max(3) # => [3, 2, 1]
[0, 1, 2, 3].max(6) # => [3, 2, 1]

When a block is given, the block must return an Integer.

With a block and no argument, calls the block self.size-1 times to compare elements; returns the element having the maximum value per the block:

['0', '00', '000'].max {|a, b| a.size <=> b.size } # => "000"

With an argument n and a block, returns a new Array with at most n elements, in descending order per the block:

['0', '00', '000'].max(2) {|a, b| a.size <=> b.size } # => ["000", "00"]

Returns one of the following:

  • The minimum-valued element from self.

  • A new Array of minimum-valued elements selected from self.

When no block is given, each element in self must respond to method <=> with an Integer.

With no argument and no block, returns the element in self having the minimum value per method <=>:

[0, 1, 2].min # => 0

With Integer argument n and no block, returns a new Array with at most n elements, in ascending order per method <=>:

[0, 1, 2, 3].min(3) # => [0, 1, 2]
[0, 1, 2, 3].min(6) # => [0, 1, 2, 3]

When a block is given, the block must return an Integer.

With a block and no argument, calls the block self.size-1 times to compare elements; returns the element having the minimum value per the block:

['0', '00', '000'].min { |a, b| a.size <=> b.size } # => "0"

With an argument n and a block, returns a new Array with at most n elements, in ascending order per the block:

[0, 1, 2, 3].min(3) # => [0, 1, 2]
[0, 1, 2, 3].min(6) # => [0, 1, 2, 3]

Returns a new 2-element Array containing the minimum and maximum values from self, either per method <=> or per a given block:.

When no block is given, each element in self must respond to method <=> with an Integer; returns a new 2-element Array containing the minimum and maximum values from self, per method <=>:

[0, 1, 2].minmax # => [0, 2]

When a block is given, the block must return an Integer; the block is called self.size-1 times to compare elements; returns a new 2-element Array containing the minimum and maximum values from self, per the block:

['0', '00', '000'].minmax {|a, b| a.size <=> b.size } # => ["0", "000"]

Returns true if no element of self meet a given criterion.

With no block given and no argument, returns true if self has no truthy elements, false otherwise:

[nil, false].none? # => true
[nil, 0, false].none? # => false
[].none? # => true

With a block given and no argument, calls the block with each element in self; returns true if the block returns no truthy value, false otherwise:

[0, 1, 2].none? {|element| element > 3 } # => true
[0, 1, 2].none? {|element| element > 1 } # => false

If argument obj is given, returns true if obj.=== no element, false otherwise:

['food', 'drink'].none?(/bar/) # => true
['food', 'drink'].none?(/foo/) # => false
[].none?(/foo/) # => true
[0, 1, 2].none?(3) # => true
[0, 1, 2].none?(1) # => false

Related: Enumerable#none?

Returns true if exactly one element of self meets a given criterion.

With no block given and no argument, returns true if self has exactly one truthy element, false otherwise:

[nil, 0].one? # => true
[0, 0].one? # => false
[nil, nil].one? # => false
[].one? # => false

With a block given and no argument, calls the block with each element in self; returns true if the block a truthy value for exactly one element, false otherwise:

[0, 1, 2].one? {|element| element > 0 } # => false
[0, 1, 2].one? {|element| element > 1 } # => true
[0, 1, 2].one? {|element| element > 2 } # => false

If argument obj is given, returns true if obj.=== exactly one element, false otherwise:

[0, 1, 2].one?(0) # => true
[0, 0, 1].one?(0) # => false
[1, 1, 2].one?(0) # => false
['food', 'drink'].one?(/bar/) # => false
['food', 'drink'].one?(/foo/) # => true
[].one?(/foo/) # => false

Related: Enumerable#one?

Packs the contents of arr into a binary sequence according to the directives in aTemplateString (see the table below) Directives “A,'' “a,'' and “Z'' may be followed by a count, which gives the width of the resulting field. The remaining directives also may take a count, indicating the number of array elements to convert. If the count is an asterisk (“*''), all remaining array elements will be converted. Any of the directives “sSiIlL'' may be followed by an underscore (“_'') or exclamation mark (“!'') to use the underlying platform's native size for the specified type; otherwise, they use a platform-independent size. Spaces are ignored in the template string. See also String#unpack.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
n = [ 65, 66, 67 ]
a.pack("A3A3A3")   #=> "a  b  c  "
a.pack("a3a3a3")   #=> "a\000\000b\000\000c\000\000"
n.pack("ccc")      #=> "ABC"

If aBufferString is specified and its capacity is enough, pack uses it as the buffer and returns it. When the offset is specified by the beginning of aTemplateString, the result is filled after the offset. If original contents of aBufferString exists and it's longer than the offset, the rest of offsetOfBuffer are overwritten by the result. If it's shorter, the gap is filled with “\0''.

Note that “buffer:'' option does not guarantee not to allocate memory in pack. If the capacity of aBufferString is not enough, pack allocates memory.

Directives for pack.

Integer       | Array   |
Directive     | Element | Meaning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
C             | Integer | 8-bit unsigned (unsigned char)
S             | Integer | 16-bit unsigned, native endian (uint16_t)
L             | Integer | 32-bit unsigned, native endian (uint32_t)
Q             | Integer | 64-bit unsigned, native endian (uint64_t)
J             | Integer | pointer width unsigned, native endian (uintptr_t)
              |         | (J is available since Ruby 2.3.)
              |         |
c             | Integer | 8-bit signed (signed char)
s             | Integer | 16-bit signed, native endian (int16_t)
l             | Integer | 32-bit signed, native endian (int32_t)
q             | Integer | 64-bit signed, native endian (int64_t)
j             | Integer | pointer width signed, native endian (intptr_t)
              |         | (j is available since Ruby 2.3.)
              |         |
S_ S!         | Integer | unsigned short, native endian
I I_ I!       | Integer | unsigned int, native endian
L_ L!         | Integer | unsigned long, native endian
Q_ Q!         | Integer | unsigned long long, native endian (ArgumentError
              |         | if the platform has no long long type.)
              |         | (Q_ and Q! is available since Ruby 2.1.)
J!            | Integer | uintptr_t, native endian (same with J)
              |         | (J! is available since Ruby 2.3.)
              |         |
s_ s!         | Integer | signed short, native endian
i i_ i!       | Integer | signed int, native endian
l_ l!         | Integer | signed long, native endian
q_ q!         | Integer | signed long long, native endian (ArgumentError
              |         | if the platform has no long long type.)
              |         | (q_ and q! is available since Ruby 2.1.)
j!            | Integer | intptr_t, native endian (same with j)
              |         | (j! is available since Ruby 2.3.)
              |         |
S> s> S!> s!> | Integer | same as the directives without ">" except
L> l> L!> l!> |         | big endian
I!> i!>       |         | (available since Ruby 1.9.3)
Q> q> Q!> q!> |         | "S>" is same as "n"
J> j> J!> j!> |         | "L>" is same as "N"
              |         |
S< s< S!< s!< | Integer | same as the directives without "<" except
L< l< L!< l!< |         | little endian
I!< i!<       |         | (available since Ruby 1.9.3)
Q< q< Q!< q!< |         | "S<" is same as "v"
J< j< J!< j!< |         | "L<" is same as "V"
              |         |
n             | Integer | 16-bit unsigned, network (big-endian) byte order
N             | Integer | 32-bit unsigned, network (big-endian) byte order
v             | Integer | 16-bit unsigned, VAX (little-endian) byte order
V             | Integer | 32-bit unsigned, VAX (little-endian) byte order
              |         |
U             | Integer | UTF-8 character
w             | Integer | BER-compressed integer

Float        | Array   |
Directive    | Element | Meaning
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
D d          | Float   | double-precision, native format
F f          | Float   | single-precision, native format
E            | Float   | double-precision, little-endian byte order
e            | Float   | single-precision, little-endian byte order
G            | Float   | double-precision, network (big-endian) byte order
g            | Float   | single-precision, network (big-endian) byte order

String       | Array   |
Directive    | Element | Meaning
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
A            | String  | arbitrary binary string (space padded, count is width)
a            | String  | arbitrary binary string (null padded, count is width)
Z            | String  | same as ``a'', except that null is added with *
B            | String  | bit string (MSB first)
b            | String  | bit string (LSB first)
H            | String  | hex string (high nibble first)
h            | String  | hex string (low nibble first)
u            | String  | UU-encoded string
M            | String  | quoted printable, MIME encoding (see also RFC2045)
             |         | (text mode but input must use LF and output LF)
m            | String  | base64 encoded string (see RFC 2045)
             |         | (if count is 0, no line feed are added, see RFC 4648)
             |         | (count specifies input bytes between each LF,
             |         | rounded down to nearest multiple of 3)
P            | String  | pointer to a structure (fixed-length string)
p            | String  | pointer to a null-terminated string

Misc.        | Array   |
Directive    | Element | Meaning
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
@            | ---     | moves to absolute position
X            | ---     | back up a byte
x            | ---     | null byte

When invoked with a block, yield all permutations of elements of self; returns self. The order of permutations is indeterminate.

When a block and an in-range positive Integer argument n (0 < n <= self.size) are given, calls the block with all n-tuple permutations of self.

Example:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.permutation(2) {|permutation| p permutation }

Output:

[0, 1]
[0, 2]
[1, 0]
[1, 2]
[2, 0]
[2, 1]

Another example:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.permutation(3) {|permutation| p permutation }

Output:

[0, 1, 2]
[0, 2, 1]
[1, 0, 2]
[1, 2, 0]
[2, 0, 1]
[2, 1, 0]

When n is zero, calls the block once with a new empty Array:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.permutation(0) {|permutation| p permutation }

Output:

[]

When n is out of range (negative or larger than self.size), does not call the block:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.permutation(-1) {|permutation| fail 'Cannot happen' }
a.permutation(4) {|permutation| fail 'Cannot happen' }

When a block given but no argument, behaves the same as a.permutation(a.size):

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.permutation {|permutation| p permutation }

Output:

[0, 1, 2]
[0, 2, 1]
[1, 0, 2]
[1, 2, 0]
[2, 0, 1]
[2, 1, 0]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.permutation # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1, 2]:permutation>
a.permutation(2) # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1, 2]:permutation(2)>

Removes and returns trailing elements.

When no argument is given and self is not empty, removes and returns the last element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.pop # => 2
a # => [:foo, "bar"]

Returns nil if the array is empty.

When a non-negative Integer argument n is given and is in range, removes and returns the last n elements in a new Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.pop(2) # => ["bar", 2]

If n is positive and out of range, removes and returns all elements:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.pop(50) # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

Related: push, shift, unshift.

Computes and returns or yields all combinations of elements from all the Arrays, including both self and other_arrays.

  • The number of combinations is the product of the sizes of all the arrays, including both self and other_arrays.

  • The order of the returned combinations is indeterminate.

When no block is given, returns the combinations as an Array of Arrays:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a1 = [3, 4]
a2 = [5, 6]
p = a.product(a1)
p.size # => 6 # a.size * a1.size
p # => [[0, 3], [0, 4], [1, 3], [1, 4], [2, 3], [2, 4]]
p = a.product(a1, a2)
p.size # => 12 # a.size * a1.size * a2.size
p # => [[0, 3, 5], [0, 3, 6], [0, 4, 5], [0, 4, 6], [1, 3, 5], [1, 3, 6], [1, 4, 5], [1, 4, 6], [2, 3, 5], [2, 3, 6], [2, 4, 5], [2, 4, 6]]

If any argument is an empty Array, returns an empty Array.

If no argument is given, returns an Array of 1-element Arrays, each containing an element of self:

a.product # => [[0], [1], [2]]

When a block is given, yields each combination as an Array; returns self:

a.product(a1) {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[0, 3]
[0, 4]
[1, 3]
[1, 4]
[2, 3]
[2, 4]

If any argument is an empty Array, does not call the block:

a.product(a1, a2, []) {|combination| fail 'Cannot happen' }

If no argument is given, yields each element of self as a 1-element Array:

a.product {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[0]
[1]
[2]

Appends trailing elements.

Appends each argument in objects to self; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.push(:baz, :bat) # => [:foo, "bar", 2, :baz, :bat]

Appends each argument as one element, even if it is another Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.push([:baz, :bat], [:bam, :bad])
a1 # => [:foo, "bar", 2, [:baz, :bat], [:bam, :bad]]

Array#append is an alias for Array#push.

Related: pop, shift, unshift.

Returns the first element in self that is an Array whose second element == obj:

a = [{foo: 0}, [2, 4], [4, 5, 6], [4, 5]]
a.rassoc(4) # => [2, 4]

Returns nil if no such element is found.

Related: assoc.

Returns a new Array whose elements are all those from self for which the block returns false or nil:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bat']
a1 = a.reject {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') }
a1 # => [:foo, 2]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.reject # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:reject>

Removes each element for which the block returns a truthy value.

Returns self if any elements removed:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bat']
a.reject! {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') } # => [:foo, 2]

Returns nil if no elements removed.

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.reject! # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:reject!>

Calls the block with each repeated combination of length n of the elements of self; each combination is an Array; returns self. The order of the combinations is indeterminate.

When a block and a positive Integer argument n are given, calls the block with each n-tuple repeated combination of the elements of self. The number of combinations is (n+1)(n+2)/2.

n = 1:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.repeated_combination(1) {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[0]
[1]
[2]

n = 2:

a.repeated_combination(2) {|combination| p combination }

Output:

[0, 0]
[0, 1]
[0, 2]
[1, 1]
[1, 2]
[2, 2]

If n is zero, calls the block once with an empty Array.

If n is negative, does not call the block:

a.repeated_combination(-1) {|combination| fail 'Cannot happen' }

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.repeated_combination(2) # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1, 2]:combination(2)>

Using Enumerators, it's convenient to show the combinations and counts for some values of n:

e = a.repeated_combination(0)
e.size # => 1
e.to_a # => [[]]
e = a.repeated_combination(1)
e.size # => 3
e.to_a # => [[0], [1], [2]]
e = a.repeated_combination(2)
e.size # => 6
e.to_a # => [[0, 0], [0, 1], [0, 2], [1, 1], [1, 2], [2, 2]]

Calls the block with each repeated permutation of length n of the elements of self; each permutation is an Array; returns self. The order of the permutations is indeterminate.

When a block and a positive Integer argument n are given, calls the block with each n-tuple repeated permutation of the elements of self. The number of permutations is self.size**n.

n = 1:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.repeated_permutation(1) {|permutation| p permutation }

Output:

[0]
[1]
[2]

n = 2:

a.repeated_permutation(2) {|permutation| p permutation }

Output:

[0, 0]
[0, 1]
[0, 2]
[1, 0]
[1, 1]
[1, 2]
[2, 0]
[2, 1]
[2, 2]

If n is zero, calls the block once with an empty Array.

If n is negative, does not call the block:

a.repeated_permutation(-1) {|permutation| fail 'Cannot happen' }

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [0, 1, 2]
a.repeated_permutation(2) # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1, 2]:permutation(2)>

Using Enumerators, it's convenient to show the permutations and counts for some values of n:

e = a.repeated_permutation(0)
e.size # => 1
e.to_a # => [[]]
e = a.repeated_permutation(1)
e.size # => 3
e.to_a # => [[0], [1], [2]]
e = a.repeated_permutation(2)
e.size # => 9
e.to_a # => [[0, 0], [0, 1], [0, 2], [1, 0], [1, 1], [1, 2], [2, 0], [2, 1], [2, 2]]

Replaces the content of self with the content of other_array; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.replace(['foo', :bar, 3]) # => ["foo", :bar, 3]

Returns a new Array with the elements of self in reverse order.

a = ['foo', 'bar', 'two']
a1 = a.reverse
a1 # => ["two", "bar", "foo"]

Reverses self in place:

a = ['foo', 'bar', 'two']
a.reverse! # => ["two", "bar", "foo"]

Iterates backwards over array elements.

When a block given, passes, in reverse order, each element to the block; returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.reverse_each {|element|  puts "#{element.class} #{element}" }

Output:

Integer 2
String bar
Symbol foo

Allows the array to be modified during iteration:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.reverse_each {|element| puts element; a.clear if element.to_s.start_with?('b') }

Output:

2
bar

When no block given, returns a new Enumerator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
e = a.reverse_each
e # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2]:reverse_each>
a1 = e.each {|element|  puts "#{element.class} #{element}" }

Output:

Integer 2
String bar
Symbol foo

Related: each, each_index.

Returns the index of the last element for which object == element.

When argument object is given but no block, returns the index of the last such element found:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.rindex('bar') # => 3

Returns nil if no such object found.

When a block is given but no argument, calls the block with each successive element; returns the index of the last element for which the block returns a truthy value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.rindex {|element| element == 'bar' } # => 3

Returns nil if the block never returns a truthy value.

When neither an argument nor a block is given, returns a new Enumerator:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
e = a.rindex
e # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2, "bar"]:rindex>
e.each {|element| element == 'bar' } # => 3

Related: index.

Returns a new Array formed from self with elements rotated from one end to the other.

When no argument given, returns a new Array that is like self, except that the first element has been rotated to the last position:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a1 = a.rotate
a1 # => ["bar", 2, "bar", :foo]

When given a non-negative Integer count, returns a new Array with count elements rotated from the beginning to the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.rotate(2)
a1 # => [2, :foo, "bar"]

If count is large, uses count % array.size as the count:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.rotate(20)
a1 # => [2, :foo, "bar"]

If count is zero, returns a copy of self, unmodified:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.rotate(0)
a1 # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

When given a negative Integer count, rotates in the opposite direction, from end to beginning:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.rotate(-2)
a1 # => ["bar", 2, :foo]

If count is small (far from zero), uses count % array.size as the count:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a1 = a.rotate(-5)
a1 # => ["bar", 2, :foo]

Rotates self in place by moving elements from one end to the other; returns self.

When no argument given, rotates the first element to the last position:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, 'bar']
a.rotate! # => ["bar", 2, "bar", :foo]

When given a non-negative Integer count, rotates count elements from the beginning to the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.rotate!(2)
a # => [2, :foo, "bar"]

If count is large, uses count % array.size as the count:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.rotate!(20)
a # => [2, :foo, "bar"]

If count is zero, returns self unmodified:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.rotate!(0)
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

When given a negative Integer count, rotates in the opposite direction, from end to beginning:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.rotate!(-2)
a # => ["bar", 2, :foo]

If count is small (far from zero), uses count % array.size as the count:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.rotate!(-5)
a # => ["bar", 2, :foo]

Returns random elements from self.

When no arguments are given, returns a random element from self:

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
a.sample # => 3
a.sample # => 8

If self is empty, returns nil.

When argument n is given (but not keyword argument random), returns a new Array containing n random elements from self:

a.sample(3) # => [8, 9, 2]
a.sample(6) # => [9, 6, 10, 3, 1, 4]

Returns no more than a.size elements (because no new duplicates are introduced):

a.sample(a.size * 2) # => [6, 4, 1, 8, 5, 9, 10, 2, 3, 7]

But self may contain duplicates:

a = [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3]
a.sample(a.size * 2) # => [1, 1, 3, 2, 1, 2]

Returns a new empty Array if self is empty.

The optional random argument will be used as the random number generator:

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
a.sample(random: Random.new(1))     #=> 6
a.sample(4, random: Random.new(1))  #=> [6, 10, 9, 2]

Calls the block, if given, with each element of self; returns a new Array containing those elements of self for which the block returns a truthy value:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a1 = a.select {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') }
a1 # => ["bar", :bam]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.select # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2, :bam]:select>

Array#filter is an alias for Array#select.

Calls the block, if given with each element of self; removes from self those elements for which the block returns false or nil.

Returns self if any elements were removed:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.select! {|element| element.to_s.start_with?('b') } # => ["bar", :bam]

Returns nil if no elements were removed.

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2, :bam]
a.select! # => #<Enumerator: [:foo, "bar", 2, :bam]:select!>

Array#filter! is an alias for Array#select!.

Builds a command line string from an argument list array joining all elements escaped for the Bourne shell and separated by a space.

See Shellwords.shelljoin for details.

Removes and returns leading elements.

When no argument is given, removes and returns the first element:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.shift # => :foo
a # => ['bar', 2]

Returns nil if self is empty.

When positive Integer argument n is given, removes the first n elements; returns those elements in a new Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.shift(2) # => [:foo, 'bar']
a # => [2]

If n is as large as or larger than self.length, removes all elements; returns those elements in a new Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.shift(3) # => [:foo, 'bar', 2]

If n is zero, returns a new empty Array; self is unmodified.

Related: push, pop, unshift.

Returns a new array with elements of self shuffled.

a = [1, 2, 3] #=> [1, 2, 3]
a.shuffle #=> [2, 3, 1]

The optional random argument will be used as the random number generator:

a.shuffle(random: Random.new(1))  #=> [1, 3, 2]

Shuffles the elements of self in place.

a = [1, 2, 3] #=> [1, 2, 3]
a.shuffle! #=> [2, 3, 1]

The optional random argument will be used as the random number generator:

a.shuffle!(random: Random.new(1))  #=> [1, 3, 2]
An alias for length

Returns elements from self; does not modify self.

When a single Integer argument index is given, returns the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0] # => :foo
a[2] # => 2
a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If index is negative, counts relative to the end of self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-1] # => 2
a[-2] # => "bar"

If index is out of range, returns nil.

When two Integer arguments start and length are given, returns a new Array of size length containing successive elements beginning at offset start:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0, 2] # => [:foo, "bar"]
a[1, 2] # => ["bar", 2]

If start + length is greater than self.length, returns all elements from offset start to the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0, 4] # => [:foo, "bar", 2]
a[1, 3] # => ["bar", 2]
a[2, 2] # => [2]

If start == self.size and length >= 0, returns a new empty Array.

If length is negative, returns nil.

When a single Range argument range is given, treats range.min as start above and range.size as length above:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0..1] # => [:foo, "bar"]
a[1..2] # => ["bar", 2]

Special case: If range.start == a.size, returns a new empty Array.

If range.end is negative, calculates the end index from the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[0..-1] # => [:foo, "bar", 2]
a[0..-2] # => [:foo, "bar"]
a[0..-3] # => [:foo]

If range.start is negative, calculates the start index from the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a[-1..2] # => [2]
a[-2..2] # => ["bar", 2]
a[-3..2] # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

If range.start is larger than the array size, returns nil.

Array#slice is an alias for Array#[].

Removes and returns elements from self.

When the only argument is an Integer n, removes and returns the nth element in self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.slice!(1) # => "bar"
a # => [:foo, 2]

If n is negative, counts backwards from the end of self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.slice!(-1) # => 2
a # => [:foo, "bar"]

If n is out of range, returns nil.

When the only arguments are Integers start and length, removes length elements from self beginning at offset start; returns the deleted objects in a new Array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.slice!(0, 2) # => [:foo, "bar"]
a # => [2]

If start + length exceeds the array size, removes and returns all elements from offset start to the end:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.slice!(1, 50) # => ["bar", 2]
a # => [:foo]

If start == a.size and length is non-negative, returns a new empty Array.

If length is negative, returns nil.

When the only argument is a Range object range, treats range.min as start above and range.size as length above:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
 a.slice!(1..2) # => ["bar", 2]
a # => [:foo]

If range.start == a.size, returns a new empty Array.

If range.start is larger than the array size, returns nil.

If range.end is negative, counts backwards from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.slice!(0..-2) # => [:foo, "bar"]
a # => [2]

If range.start is negative, calculates the start index backwards from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.slice!(-2..2) # => ["bar", 2]
a # => [:foo]

Returns a new Array whose elements are those from self, sorted.

With no block, compares elements using operator <=> (see Comparable):

a = 'abcde'.split('').shuffle
a # => ["e", "b", "d", "a", "c"]
a1 = a.sort
a1 # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]

With a block, calls the block with each element pair; for each element pair a and b, the block should return an integer:

  • Negative when b is to follow a.

  • Zero when a and b are equivalent.

  • Positive when a is to follow b.

Example:

a = 'abcde'.split('').shuffle
a # => ["e", "b", "d", "a", "c"]
a1 = a.sort {|a, b| a <=> b }
a1 # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]
a2 = a.sort {|a, b| b <=> a }
a2 # => ["e", "d", "c", "b", "a"]

When the block returns zero, the order for a and b is indeterminate, and may be unstable:

a = 'abcde'.split('').shuffle
a # => ["e", "b", "d", "a", "c"]
a1 = a.sort {|a, b| 0 }
a1 # =>  ["c", "e", "b", "d", "a"]

Related: Enumerable#sort_by.

Returns self with its elements sorted in place.

With no block, compares elements using operator <=> (see Comparable):

a = 'abcde'.split('').shuffle
a # => ["e", "b", "d", "a", "c"]
a.sort!
a # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]

With a block, calls the block with each element pair; for each element pair a and b, the block should return an integer:

  • Negative when b is to follow a.

  • Zero when a and b are equivalent.

  • Positive when a is to follow b.

Example:

a = 'abcde'.split('').shuffle
a # => ["e", "b", "d", "a", "c"]
a.sort! {|a, b| a <=> b }
a # => ["a", "b", "c", "d", "e"]
a.sort! {|a, b| b <=> a }
a # => ["e", "d", "c", "b", "a"]

When the block returns zero, the order for a and b is indeterminate, and may be unstable:

a = 'abcde'.split('').shuffle
a # => ["e", "b", "d", "a", "c"]
a.sort! {|a, b| 0 }
a # => ["d", "e", "c", "a", "b"]

Sorts the elements of self in place, using an ordering determined by the block; returns self.

Calls the block with each successive element; sorts elements based on the values returned from the block.

For duplicates returned by the block, the ordering is indeterminate, and may be unstable.

This example sorts strings based on their sizes:

a = ['aaaa', 'bbb', 'cc', 'd']
a.sort_by! {|element| element.size }
a # => ["d", "cc", "bbb", "aaaa"]

Returns a new Enumerator if no block given:

a = ['aaaa', 'bbb', 'cc', 'd']
a.sort_by! # => #<Enumerator: ["aaaa", "bbb", "cc", "d"]:sort_by!>

When no block is given, returns the object equivalent to:

sum = init
array.each {|element| sum += element }
sum

For example, [e1, e2, e3].sum returns </tt>init + e1 + e2 + e3</tt>.

Examples:

a = [0, 1, 2, 3]
a.sum # => 6
a.sum(100) # => 106

The elements need not be numeric, but must be +-compatible with each other and with init:

a = ['abc', 'def', 'ghi']
a.sum('jkl') # => "jklabcdefghi"

When a block is given, it is called with each element and the block's return value (instead of the element itself) is used as the addend:

a = ['zero', 1, :two]
s = a.sum('Coerced and concatenated: ') {|element| element.to_s }
s # => "Coerced and concatenated: zero1two"

Notes:

Returns a new Array containing the first n element of self, where n is a non-negative Integer; does not modify self.

Examples:

a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.take(1) # => [0]
a.take(2) # => [0, 1]
a.take(50) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Returns a new Array containing zero or more leading elements of self; does not modify self.

With a block given, calls the block with each successive element of self; stops if the block returns false or nil; returns a new Array containing those elements for which the block returned a truthy value:

a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a.take_while {|element| element < 3 } # => [0, 1, 2]
a.take_while {|element| true } # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

With no block given, returns a new Enumerator:

[0, 1].take_while # => #<Enumerator: [0, 1]:take_while>

When self is an instance of Array, returns self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.to_a # => [:foo, "bar", 2]

Otherwise, returns a new Array containing the elements of self:

class MyArray < Array; end
a = MyArray.new(['foo', 'bar', 'two'])
a.instance_of?(Array) # => false
a.kind_of?(Array) # => true
a1 = a.to_a
a1 # => ["foo", "bar", "two"]
a1.class # => Array # Not MyArray

Returns self.

Returns a new Hash formed from self.

When a block is given, calls the block with each array element; the block must return a 2-element Array whose two elements form a key-value pair in the returned Hash:

a = ['foo', :bar, 1, [2, 3], {baz: 4}]
h = a.to_h {|item| [item, item] }
h # => {"foo"=>"foo", :bar=>:bar, 1=>1, [2, 3]=>[2, 3], {:baz=>4}=>{:baz=>4}}

When no block is given, self must be an Array of 2-element sub-arrays, each sub-array is formed into a key-value pair in the new Hash:

[].to_h # => {}
a = [['foo', 'zero'], ['bar', 'one'], ['baz', 'two']]
h = a.to_h
h # => {"foo"=>"zero", "bar"=>"one", "baz"=>"two"}
An alias for inspect

Transposes the rows and columns in an Array of Arrays; the nested Arrays must all be the same size:

a = [[:a0, :a1], [:b0, :b1], [:c0, :c1]]
a.transpose # => [[:a0, :b0, :c0], [:a1, :b1, :c1]]

Returns a new Array that is the union of self and all given Arrays other_arrays; duplicates are removed; order is preserved; items are compared using eql?:

[0, 1, 2, 3].union([4, 5], [6, 7]) # => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
[0, 1, 1].union([2, 1], [3, 1]) # => [0, 1, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 2, 3].union([3, 2], [1, 0]) # => [0, 1, 2, 3]

Returns a copy of self if no arguments given.

Related: Array#|.

Returns a new Array containing those elements from self that are not duplicates, the first occurrence always being retained.

With no block given, identifies and omits duplicates using method eql? to compare.

a = [0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2]
a.uniq # => [0, 1, 2]

With a block given, calls the block for each element; identifies (using method eql?) and omits duplicate values, that is, those elements for which the block returns the same value:

a = ['a', 'aa', 'aaa', 'b', 'bb', 'bbb']
a.uniq {|element| element.size } # => ["a", "aa", "aaa"]

Removes duplicate elements from self, the first occurrence always being retained; returns self if any elements removed, nil otherwise.

With no block given, identifies and removes elements using method eql? to compare.

Returns self if any elements removed:

a = [0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2]
a.uniq! # => [0, 1, 2]

Returns nil if no elements removed.

With a block given, calls the block for each element; identifies (using method eql?) and removes elements for which the block returns duplicate values.

Returns self if any elements removed:

a = ['a', 'aa', 'aaa', 'b', 'bb', 'bbb']
a.uniq! {|element| element.size } # => ['a', 'aa', 'aaa']

Returns nil if no elements removed.

Prepends the given objects to self:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.unshift(:bam, :bat) # => [:bam, :bat, :foo, "bar", 2]

Array#prepend is an alias for Array#unshift.

Related: push, pop, shift.

Returns a new Array whose elements are the elements of self at the given Integer indexes.

For each positive index, returns the element at offset index:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.values_at(0, 2) # => [:foo, 2]

The given indexes may be in any order, and may repeat:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.values_at(2, 0, 1, 0, 2) # => [2, :foo, "bar", :foo, 2]

Assigns nil for an index that is too large:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.values_at(0, 3, 1, 3) # => [:foo, nil, "bar", nil]

Returns a new empty Array if no arguments given.

For each negative index, counts backward from the end of the array:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.values_at(-1, -3) # => [2, :foo]

Assigns nil for an index that is too small:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.values_at(0, -5, 1, -6, 2) # => [:foo, nil, "bar", nil, 2]

The given indexes may have a mixture of signs:

a = [:foo, 'bar', 2]
a.values_at(0, -2, 1, -1) # => [:foo, "bar", "bar", 2]

When no block given, returns a new Array new_array of size self.size whose elements are Arrays.

Each nested array new_array[n] is of size other_arrays.size+1, and contains:

  • The nth element of self.

  • The nth element of each of the other_arrays.

If all other_arrays and self are the same size:

a = [:a0, :a1, :a2, :a3]
b = [:b0, :b1, :b2, :b3]
c = [:c0, :c1, :c2, :c3]
d = a.zip(b, c)
d # => [[:a0, :b0, :c0], [:a1, :b1, :c1], [:a2, :b2, :c2], [:a3, :b3, :c3]]

If any array in other_arrays is smaller than self, fills to self.size with nil:

a = [:a0, :a1, :a2, :a3]
b = [:b0, :b1, :b2]
c = [:c0, :c1]
d = a.zip(b, c)
d # => [[:a0, :b0, :c0], [:a1, :b1, :c1], [:a2, :b2, nil], [:a3, nil, nil]]

If any array in other_arrays is larger than self, its trailing elements are ignored:

a = [:a0, :a1, :a2, :a3]
b = [:b0, :b1, :b2, :b3, :b4]
c = [:c0, :c1, :c2, :c3, :c4, :c5]
d = a.zip(b, c)
d # => [[:a0, :b0, :c0], [:a1, :b1, :c1], [:a2, :b2, :c2], [:a3, :b3, :c3]]

When a block is given, calls the block with each of the sub-arrays (formed as above); returns nil

a = [:a0, :a1, :a2, :a3]
b = [:b0, :b1, :b2, :b3]
c = [:c0, :c1, :c2, :c3]
a.zip(b, c) {|sub_array| p sub_array} # => nil

Output:

[:a0, :b0, :c0]
[:a1, :b1, :c1]
[:a2, :b2, :c2]
[:a3, :b3, :c3]

Returns the union of array and Array other_array; duplicates are removed; order is preserved; items are compared using eql?:

[0, 1] | [2, 3] # => [0, 1, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 1] | [2, 2, 3] # => [0, 1, 2, 3]
[0, 1, 2] | [3, 2, 1, 0] # => [0, 1, 2, 3]

Related: Array#union.